From Prof. R. Schott’s unpublished diaries

(Note F.K.: R. Schott conducted extensive field research on Bulsa history, but his fieldnotes, which are kept in the Frobenius Institute Frankfurt, were not available to me [F.K.])

I) From his diary 1966/67

7.9.66: Presbyterian mission: Rev. Byers and sister Doris Hodds from Aberdeen. She speaks Buli fluently. Church was built in 1960.
Paramount Chief: about 60 years old. He is Vice-president of the House of Chiefs of Ghana. Was present at coronation of Elizabeth II.
29.9.66: Atuga married a woman from his own family.
27.10.66 or later (6th book): In the past Bulsa drove away Kasena people from some parts of Sandema. Today the river is the boundary, Chana-people still have important cult places beyond the river. Therefore the Sandemnab does not like to give his consent to a road being built from Sandema to Chana. Wusiga was the first ancestor of the Chana people driven away from Sandema. The Sandemnab was not enskinned traditionally. The right to wear the red cap is with his older brother. The Sandemnab has been in office for 31 years, the Chana-pio for 16 years.
23.12.66: The first settlement of Atuga was near the rock Atugapusik, between Sandema and Wiaga. Atuga’s grave is supposed to be near a small baobab tree. On the surface you can find reddish potsherds, which according to Mr. Gariba (headmaster) are typical of a very early phase of pottery. Probably Atuga took cows, goats, sheep and Danguns along from Nalerigu. Atuga’s sons have conflicts and leave the paternal house. The eldest son Akaasa or Akadem took the wen (stone) Atuga’s and went to Kadema. At that time deceased strangers were not buried, but passers by laid leaves or fruit on their bodies.
Kadema: The tradition goes that Atuga settled and died in Kadema. Akaasa’s wen is in front of the chief’s compound. Atuga’s grave and wen is outside the village on a hill. In Kadema there are things from Atuga’s legacy: arm and foot bangles, wooden quiver with arrows…
Kanjaga: Founder was Akala (or Akalasia or Akanjag), who was dependent on Atuga. Akala’s wen and shrine can still be seen in the bushland. We can see there a high staple of unbroken clay pots, sticks wrapped with ropes, the neckropes of sacrificed animals [F.K.: Is here the Pung tanggbain described?]
Fumbisi: The founder was Afim. According to the Sandemnaab Atuga, Afim and Akanjag were brothers. This is denied in Fumbisi. In the three main places [?] there are the “state drums” [talking drums] in the same form as found among the Mamprusi. Afimbiik’s legacy is in Fumbisi: arm-bangles, war-helmet, battle axe, bow and arrows.
Gbedema: People of Gbedema do not believe they are descendants of the Mamprusi, but of the Grunchi. Their first ancestor was Gwern is also known in the tradition of Chana. There is also a village called Gbedem. Gbedema has also intensive relations to the Tallensi. Atong, an ancestor whose grave is in the Gbedema compound, brought a secondary shrine of the big Tallensi shrine to Gbedema.
Siniensi: Chief is teacher at the Primary School and a friend of Gariba.
Durbar: On New Year’s day there is a big Durbar in Sandema, initiated by the Paramount Chief. The traditional ride of the Sandemnaab to the market did not take place.
1966: There are only three paramount chiefs in Northern Ghana. At the time of Nkrumah there were 24.
Chuchuliga: Achuloa, the founder, immigrated from Chebele (Kasena area). There is no kinship relation to Atuga, as the Sandemnab had stated.
Wiaga: Although some people say that Awiag had 7 sons (including Atandem), there were really only two: Awobil and Adogbil.
21.1.67: According to the lexico-statistic method, Buli has the biggest common vocabulary with Mampruli (81%). This is in agreement with its history.
In the past the Bulsa youth was trained in bow-shooting.
The Sandemnab administered a budget of 8640.00 1952 (about 90,000 DM). Under Nkrumah there was no tribal budget. Even his private property was confiscated by the Local Council. Today his good advice is not listened to in the local committees. His jurisdiction is limited to “women’s cases” and even of these the Lay Magistrate Court draws cases to itself.
25.2.67 or later (12th book): In Sandema there live about 200 Lagosians and700 Kantosi (with children), who all live an trade. Apart from the head tax (1 lb for men, 5/- for women) they only pay the market tax, i.e. 6d for one stall on every market day. The taxes for the rural population are collected by the villages chiefs and the headmen. Some chiefs are salaried by the local council, but not the headmen (kambonnalima).
Chana: Father or the Chana-pio was Ayagitam I, who was regarded a tyrant. In the chief’s house there is the kwora (kwara) shrine.
3.3.67: Wiesi: Chief died in 1966. People of Wiesi descend from Wiaga-Yisobsa.
Sandema-Suarinsa: In the past they elected the Sandema chiefs here.
24.3.67 or later (13th book): Bachonsi: Their chief died recently. The leading sections descend from Wiaga-Baandem. Some sections came from the Bulsa area, some from the Sisala area.
Before Atuga Akalbok, from whom Akobdem, Akaljiik, and Along descend.
1.4.67: First catholic ordination to priesthood: [Peter] Azenab, the Wiaga-chief’s brother.
n.d.: Wiaga Sections: Kom, Chandem, Bachinsa: original population; Kpalinsa: they descend from Atuga’s sister or one his young wives.
n.d.: Atuga’s descendants: genealogical table.
n.d.: Sections of Sandema: all are exogamous
Kobdem: Akanboro is kambonnaab, his brother si the diviner Akandem; many teng-nyam. Alimasiak is the rainmaker and senior teng-nyono. Kobdem does not eat monkey and cat
Kalijiisa: about 180 households; nobody is allowed to become a diviner.
Choabisa: subsection. Smiths immigrated from Kandem. Today there are 3-4 blacksmiths. The founder was related to Kalijiisa via a woman.
Yongsa: subsection. Teng-nyono: descendant of the eldest son of Akaljiik.
Abilyeri: Men are not allowed to become diviners, women only in other sections. They have two teng-nyam: sons of the same father. None of them wanted to become teng-nyono. Therefore their father divided the office up. Teng nyono: Adzuik. People eat cat, but no monkey.
Fiisa: Here is the first and original teng for the whole of Sandema. The inhabitant descend from the original inhabitants of Sandema.
Kalibisa: head: Awulinka

II) From a lecture of Prof. Schott: Cultural History of the Bulsa
Atuga was in conflict with his father, because he had seduced one of his wives. His horse carried him in one jump to Gambaga escarpment. Traces of the horse and his lance are still to be seen there.

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