Fieldnotes 1973-2012 F. Kröger(border punch cards)

Note:  The following texts and excerpts do not include any source that can be downloaded from the internet (the addresses are, however, mentioned)

(fn= fieldnote, 73= 1973, year; 42a: front page of the file card (border punch card), 42b: back


fn 73,42a+b: Sections of Siniensi
fn 73,85a: Plan of the site of Atuga Pusik, 85b: potsherds, al little different from nowadays, grinding stone, Info shepherds: a long time ago here were two compounds, one for Atuga, one for his sons; after that time there were no more houses at this site; at Atuga’s time the compounds did not have a cattleyard
fn 73,87a: Inf. Awuliimba, Kalijiisa (J. Agalic’s father): Atuga’s descendants
fn 73,101a: 11-6-73: Info the teng-nyono‘s son of Fiisa (appr. 50 years old) ; he is acting (officiating) teng nyono, because his father is too old. In the past there were also Babatu’ rifles and horse-bones. His uncle sold the rifles, which were part of the sanctuary and died immediately (before the birth of the informant). The horse-bones disappeared because the were rotten completely.
History Fiisa: Afiu, Asam’s eldest (?) son, came to the site of Sandema, when his father Asam was still living with his father Atuga. Asam came later. Therefore is the teng-nyono of Fiisa the teng-nyono of the whole of Sandema. Afiu’s children quarrelled about eggs and one son (Apung) left his family and moved with Asam’s bogluk to Bilinsa. He lived in the (present?) subsection of Tangkunsa, but he fought with these people, because they had killed all his animals. Apung and Achang (his brother?) and their families left and went to Bilinmonsa, where they built their own houses, but they left Asam’s bogluk in Tangkunsa. They called their settlement Pungsa. Today Pungsa is a subsection of Bilinsa. There is a marriage ban between Pungsa and Fiisa, but not between Fiisa and the other sections of Bilinsa. A member of Fiisa is neither allowed to marry the child of a woman, who belongs to Pungsa (and vice versa). Afiu’s and Asam’s graves are not known.
Tribal marks in Fiisa: 2 marks on each cheek.
fn 73,124a+b: The fieldnotes about Babatu were integrated in F.K.’s essay: “Raids and Refuge”
fn 73,163b: The Bulsa practise joking relations with the Zambarima (Babatu’s tribe), e.g. in Accra.
fn 73,187a: Settlement history of Kalijiisa-Yongsa
fn 73,210a: History of Wiaga; Inf.: Ex-policeman from the Wiaga-Chief’s House. He got his knowledge from the young Leander Amoak his former teacher, but today Leander has forgotten much of his historical knowledge.
In the past the Wiaga chief came from Wiaga-Yimonsa. One day the white Captain Edwards came to Wiaga and shot one elephant. He asked the [Yimonsa] chief to provide carriers, but the chief either could not or did not want to provide them. Then Ateng, an ancestor of Asiuk, provided carriers, after which the British made him chief. Thereafter Ateng moved from his section Kori to the [Sandema] road. The next chief (after Ateng) was Azenaab, after him, on April 12, 1948 Asiuk. After Asiuk’s death Yimonsa will again demand the chieftaincy over Wiaga, which was taken from them illegally.
In the times of Babatu, Wiaga was ruled by a Yimonsa chief.
fn 73,235a+b: The first Christian in Sandema-Kalijiisa
fn 73,240a: History of Wiaga, Inf. Leander Amoak, 11.8.74; a: descendants of Atuga;
b: First Mamprusi settlers: Anguruma came from Mamprusi land and settled near Wiaga before Atuga came, He was a hunter. He married one of Awiag’s daughters.
Chiuk: The blacksmiths came from Fumbisi-Chiuk. One blacksmiths married Anagla, Awiag’s daughter. From her descends the female line of Chiok; Chiok-Siyaasa: male line. Anagla’s compound provides the first headman, the assistant headman comes from the male line.
Tandem: It had belonged to Kadema. Its inhabitants are no descendants of Awiag. Some sections came from different regions: Upper Volta (Burkina), Gurunsi-Land or Mamprussiland.
Bachinsa and Sichaasa lived on their sites already before Atuga.
Kpandem people descend from Yisobsa, but as it is very big, it has its own kambonnaab, who is something like a sub-kambonnaab under Yisobsa.
Asiuk’s grandfather [Ateng?] lived in Kpandem, but he belonged to Yisobsa (there are many Yisobsa houses in Kpandem). People of the chief’s compound must not marry from Yisobsa and Kpandem.
fn 73,241a+b: History of schools in Buluk; Inf. Leander Amoak (1974). The White Fathers settled first at Belnaaba (“chief’s river”). They did not found a school there, but they only had “catechism classes” (1923?). The British forced sons of chiefs to attend these “schools”. Asiuk, too, attended this school. Sometimes Bulsa chiefs kidnapped some boys and passed them off as their children. Asiuk was forced to become a Christian, but he was not baptized. A son of the Chuchuliga chief, as well as Amangnala (dead in 1974) from the Siniensi chief’s compound and Andekcheruk from the Kademanaab‘s house attended this school.
The White Fathers had come from Ouagadougou and settled first in Gambaga and Wa. From Belnaaba they sent messengers through the whole Bulsaland to find the most central place of Buluk. It was Wiaga. At first they had only a hut near the present Land Planning Office. Looking for a place for their church they built it near the most important tanggbain of Wiaga: a rock where today the bells of the church are. They disproved the belief that everybody who settles there must die. Nevertheless Wiaga people tried to go on sacrificing there at nighttime.
Leander was ordered to keep night watch there and drive those people away.
The White Fathers settled in Wiaga in 1927, in 1929 they gave the first lessons there. and in 1930 the first school started their work. Leander was arrested in 1930 and sent to this school. Among the first pupils of this school were: Mr. Patrick, Mr Ataadem (nurse at Fumbisi Clinic), Mr Francis (ex-policeman in Wiaga), Peter Apung (Sandema), Mr Roberts (1929, later teacher), Mr. Ben from Siniensi (1931 or 1932), Agaasa (Sandema)…
Herbert, Asiuk’s younger brother, today (1974), teacher in Fumbisi, was forced to go to Sandema Old Primary.
The White Fathers wore the red caps at those times, to identify themselves as chiefs.
Info Father Guitet (1974): The first missionaries caused much mischief. They forced baptized Christians to leave their parental house and settle near the church.

fn 73,242a: Inf. Leander Amoak (12-8-74). Also the Bulsa had been slave dealers at the beginning of the 20th century, for example the Wiaga-Chief had many slaves. Descendants of slaves are still living in the sections, but they do not want to hear that they were slaves, They are allowed to marry persons within their living section, if they choose another residence outsider their section.
fn 73,283: Inf. Headmaster of St. Martin’s Middle School, Wiaga
The CYO (Catholic Youth Organisation) came to Bulsa around1958 (?)m at first to Wiaga. From there branches were founded in other Bulsa villages. Presently (1974) there is a downturn, because many leaders go to the south after their examinations. The organisation resembles that of the scouts, i.e. they organize picknicks, camping, excursions etc. One aim is to win as many young people for the catholic faith as possible. Until recently Father Guitet was the head of the CYO.
fn 73,286: Inf. Apatinyin (Sa-Yongsa); Akaljik and his younger brother Ayong lived in Akobdem’s house in Kobdem. Their father was Asajik. Akaljik left Kobdem first and settled at the place where today his bogluk is (at the teng-nyono‘s house in Yongsa). Ayong, who then was still childless, moved to the present guuk near the teng-nyono’s house. When Abese became yeri-nyono, Achivie left the house to settle near the present Ayidoa Yeri.
fn 73,315b: Inf. Sandford. Akarik’s (Akadem’s) bogluk is in Bayangsa (chief’s section), immediately beside Atuga’s. Both stand on a guuk by the way to Wiaga. Akarik is first sacrificed before Atuga. The rotating bogluta of Akpajim, Azong and Akpaala (founder of a section) are presently in Akusung Yeri.
fn 73,320a: Inf. Victor Anako, Sections of Fumbisi.
b: The blacksmiths came from Wiesi-Chiuk, from Fumbisi to Wiaga. Fumbisi and Wiaga blacksmith sections have the same tribal marks.
fn 73,332a+b: Inf. Augustine 1974: History of the Presbyterian Mission in Sandema; Missionaries:
1. C.F. Paton: 1952-56: He came together with Paul Atinga (originally from Bolga) from Accra and the Sandemnaab gave him land in Kobdem (1952). On the same site was the catholic mission of the White Fathers who went to Wiaga, when the Presbyterians settled.
2. Duncan: 1956-63: There were conflicts with the Catholics concerning religious instructions at schools. Duncan persuaded James Agalic to study theology. From Sandema Duncan went to Tamale.
3.A.J.Byers: 1963- He met Prof. Schott on the boat from Europe to Ghana and invited him to start his work among the Bulsa.
4. James Agalic (see also obituary in Buluk ….)
E. Doris 1961: She expands nursery over the whole Bulsaland
Norma: 1969-Apr. 1972
Dorothy: May 1973-
Hutchinson: He founded the agric station
Owusu: Ghanaer
Rolf Böhm: German
Agriculturist: from Uganda
Branches of the Presbyterian Church (1974)
1. Fumbisi with Kanjaga, Gbedema, Wiesi and Yiwaasi
2. Chana with Katiu, Gwenia and Kalivio
3. Chuchuliga with Namonsa, Achan yeri and Azug Yeri
In all the branches there were also catholic catechists.

fn78,17a+b: Inf. Leander Amoak: History of Wiaga, genealogical table;
Asinyang’s wen, as well as those of Agoluk (cf. Goldem) and Akaliye (whose line died out) are in a heap of stones in Wiaga-Goldem. On the stone lies a white stone, over which libations are poured, but it is no wen-stone. Ayinyang’s bogluk does not rotate through compounds, only the offices of its sacrificer rotates.
In the past Kubelinsa had its own army against Babatu. Among their weapons were also spears. Even today the best weapons are made in Kubelinsa.
Bachinsa and Sichaasa had different names which are unknown today, before Atuga. The Atuga-bisa gave them their present names. The oldest wena before Atuga are lost. Bachinsa lost its land to the Atuga-bisa and was pushed eastwards.
Awiag’s wen is in Dogbilinsa (no rotation!) because Adoabil was the oldest son of Awiag.
fn78,18: visit to Doninga with Edwin (headmaster); Within the Bulsa District the only section where Konni [F.K.: not the Konni of the present Koma around Yikpabongo] is spoken is Doninga-Yipaala (10 km from Doninga) in the past they were Sisala. People of Kong lived here in th past. They went to Kong and some of them returned to this place. I test their language by the Swadesh 100 method. It is Sisali, though a little different from the Tumu dialect.
fn78,19b: Inf. Leander: Awiag’s wen: see 78,17!
Sinyangsa: in the past the section of Sinyangsa were more co-operative. Asinyang receives only millet water as sacrifice, no animals. When in the past animals were sacrificed members of all Sinyangsa sections were present.
Kadema Road: In the past it was only a footpath used for the transport of slaves. The British broadened it.
fn78,20, Inf. Sebastian Adaanur, Sandema-Yongsa;
Babatu sent a Moslem, called Mohamed, as a spy to many small Bulsa villages, at first to Bachonsa, then other villages of the southern Bulsa. He said he wanted to buy rice and millet. He said he wanted to build a house and was lead around by a headman. He asked to show him the best wrestlers and hunters and the most dangerous weapons. He told Babatu everything, who provided countermeasures (leather clothes etc.). Wiaga people told this to Sandema people. Babatu never came to (the centre of Sandema), he was beaten before entering the village.
Babatu’s wife was captured near the present Boarding School by Sandema people who killed her. They pushed a stick through her anus and mouth and hung her on a shea tree. This tree (near the Boarding School) does not exist any longer today, but people know exactly where it was.
fn78,29: Inf. Asage (Adum Yeri, Wiaga Badomsa) 30-8-78
Anaanateng was the first ancestor of the Bulsa. He lived in Wiaga-Tandem-Zamsa, where people still sacrifice to his wen. There is also a figure of him formed in mud [F.K. a terracotta]. Anaanateng had four sons. One of them (Asage has forgotten his name) went to Kpasinkpe. Another son Avuridem (later called Amampuruk) left Zamsa to got to [F.K. the region of] Gambaga and Nalerigu. There the kingmaker Awurubonwari wanted to make him chief, when Avuridem was just working on his bushfarm. The messenger called “Naa loebi” (the chief has laid an egg). Avuridem became chief of all Mamprusi. From “Naa loebi” and (Dagbani) the name Nalerigu originated. Avuridem’s son (real name not known) who was called Naalenaab, became a chief, too. Naalenaab’s son Atuga returned to the Bulsa country. Another son of Naalenaab called Akansiteng, went to Kolugu. People of Kolugu speak Buli (sic) and have the same customs as the Bulsa. As people of Abilyeri they also have tribal marks consisting of one mark on the left cheek. If Kolugu chief comes to Sandema, the Sandemnaab has to hide (and vice versa). If a talk is necessary, he has to veil his face. In European matters (e.g. in Parliament) they are allowed to converse.
fn78,31: F. Kröger visits Zamsa (1-9-78) Inf.: Agbandem, yeri nyono of Avarisik Yeri
31a: genealogical table of the ancestors of Avarisik Yeri.
Atuga came to Atengdaara, who gave him a place to settle in Kadema
Descendants of Atengdaara are the non-Atuga bisa. His descendants live (according to information from Asage) in the following sections:
1. Kabaaning: section of Gbedema
2. Awuleng founded Wulensa, which is separated today in Fumbisi-Tensansa and Kanjaga-Samsa
3. Asamboring’s descendents: some live in Gbedema Balerinsa, some in Kunkwa, some in Samborinsa (Yiwaasi)
4. Chaana: Bidem (related to Gbedema)
5. Akumlabil: in Kunkwa, even today they still sacrifice to Anaanateng’s wen
6. Alaaba (see genealogy): Kadema Laaba
7. Abaching: Wiaga Bachinsa, in the past they sacrificed to Anaanateng
8. Akamoanung: subsection of Kubelinsa (informant is not quite sure), most of the descendants are dead
9. Akom: descendants still sacrifice to Anaanateng
10. Sandema-Kandem and Fiisa. In the past they sacrificed to Anaanateng in Zamsa. Today they still come for ritual activities without sacrificing themselves.

fn79,26b: joking relationships: Sandema Kalijiisa with Fiisa and Sandema with Chana-Kayoruk.
fn79,33a: Informant: Yeri nyono of Atinboa Yeri, Sandema Tankunsa
Asam’s wen-bogluk (about 1.50 m high) stands between the Navrongo Road and the Bilinsa Primary School at a very big guuk. Here lived Asam himself. Except Atankung and Atinboa (sons of the same mother) had left his compound. Atankung’s son also left the compound together with Atankung’s wen-bogluk, which today is in another compound of Tankunsa. Atinboa’s bogluk is in front of Atinboa Yeri. When they sacrifice to Asam, also members of other sections of Sandema take part. The sacrifices can, however, only be performed by Atinboa Yeri.
Asam never lived in Fiisa, but only the children of his sister. She had married to Kanjaga, but she left her husband together with her children who settled in Fiisa. Asam regarded her children as his own children. His sister’s children helped him to build his compound. His sister’s son was Akam (?).
33b: genealogical table


fn81,3b: Inf. Margaret Arnheim: History of Gbedema
Agbi(i)ra came from Chakanu, a village near Navrongo that does not exist any longer. Agbira built his compound near Gbedema-Kunkwak, and his wen (in bushland) receives sacrifices today by Kunkwak. His wen does not rotate, belongs to the house Avari; Agbeema’s bogluk rotates, presently (1981) it is in Akpeelim Yeri, before it was in the chief’s house; the next house will be Alagtuak.
The founders of Fumbisi and Kanjaga came from the Mamprusi-Land.
fn81,6a: The British introduced the following trees: Nim-tree, Cassia and teak. In the former German areas (Yendi) the Germans introduced the Mango-tree; Mango is more useful than nim-tree, because under a nim-tree you cannot grow crops, because some liquid is always dropping, which destroys cereals.
fn81,7b: Info Howard Brant (American missionary)
Biuk: one half Bulsa, one half Nankanni, but there is only one chief. 100 compounds of the approximately 300 are Bulsa. Some people say that in olden times they lived under the earth. Then there was a big flood and they were forced them to come to the surface. Above they found Frafra, Kasena and Bulsa. They (the oldest layer of inhabitants) are all teng-nyam; their taboos are. bow and arrow and waging wars.
There is one big shrine, covered by a mat. Biuk-people are not allowed to leave their village, e.g. for going to Navrongo hospital.
Jadema: 6 sections, one of which is Bulsa
Dibsi: 4 sections, one of which is Bulsa
Isiasi, [=] Yisesi, Nangruma, Yagaba: pure Mamprusi, but they all speak also Buli, because of their trading with Fumbisi. All villages east of the White Volta are cut off from the other Mamprusi, but have good contacts to the Bulsa, Kunkoak and village east of the Sisaala have good connections to the Bulsa.
Kunkoak: 100% Bulsa; today they regret the dissolution from the Bulsa; about 3000 inhabitants, Brant saw horse stirrups beside a bogluk. Kunkoak has marriage system like that of Wiaga, ie. from some sections they can marry only daughters, from others only wives. If a man addresses a woman from the “wives” section, he is beaten up.
Six-day-market: Fumbisi, Kunkoak, Jagba, Jirisi
Fumbisi: trading centre, the extreme place that traders from the South. Fumbisi-market was situated outside the village in the direction of Uwasi (today in town).
fn81,12: Inf. Leander Amoak (the same information he gave to Prof. Schott); Yimonsa chiefs.
Akadiri introduced chieftaincy to the Bulsa. His compound, Anangkansi Yeri, Yimonsa, is situated to the west of the modern chief ‘s house. He left Buluk as a young man and returned with a cow-hide, a red cap, a tail and all types of seeds. He called all people together and said, God had given him power. In the morning he took several seeds, planted them, conjured up rain and harvested on the same day.
Today a genuine chieftaincy exist only in Yimonsa. The Sandemnaab and the Wiaganaab have no naam bage, the Kademanaab has is not yet, but Gbedema and Chuchuliga have it. Sandema and Wiaga have a European chieftaincy.
The old Akadiri had no son. He ordered his people to put him into a grave alive and leave only a hole for breathing. People talked to him through this hole, e.g. about sacrifices. They still do so today. Akadiri’s funeral has not yet been held. No stranger (Leander, Schott, Kröger) is allowed to enter his compound.
81,16a+b: Ancestors and descendant in Wiaga-Badomsa
19b: Wiaga Chiok’s realm of the dead is in kinkang-tree behind Sinyangsa Primary School
24a: History of Wiaga Badomsa: ancestors and descendants (cf. 19b),


fn84, 39: Emmanuel: the story of the Kobdem raingod

fn 86,4b: Inf. James Agalic and Sandemnaab (also given to Schott),
When Asam went hunting he met a man with very bushy hair. This man (he was a tanggbain) asked Asam, to cut his hair. Azagsuk (the tanggbain) said: “Tomorrow”. Asam ordered a slave to cut his hair. [text not quite clear, part of the history of Fiisa)

fn86,9a: Inf. James Agalic: Sandemnaab’s family
Abakisi delayed the Juka-funeral of the “yeri nyono” (elder brother of Azantilow), because he did not want to become the “kpagi”. It is said that a kpagi of the chief’s house does not live long. When Abakisi became kpagi, he died in the same year. He never sacrificed to Ayieta or to the tanggbain opposite the resthouse.
Afoko had been very mild and just in the first years of his reign. Then he was captured by the British and was taken in custody in Gambaga for half a year. Perhaps he even had been physically chastised. When he came back he was a willing tool of the British and their imitator. Azantilow and others tried to blame Afoko and Agaasa.
When the cathedral of Navrongo was being built, the two Bulsa each had to carry long logs on their heads to Navrongo. On the logs a representative of chief was sitting and played a flute. At that time the chief carried a stalk as a ruler ‘s baton [sceptre?].
The old Sandema guesthouse, a round building made of mud with a straw roof, was situated near the post-office [at the branch to Siniensi). Today (1984) there is a round guuk [after 2000 F.K. could no longer recognize any remains]. Such round houses you could also find on the Navrongo-Paga road.
Azantilow: his merit was to unite all Bulsa. It is said he became a chief even as a shepherd boy, but there was a hard competition.

fn86,14b: Inf. Akanming, Badomsa: In his youth he walked with his Siniensi brother to Kumasi. They found a job by clearing land for agriculture. They earned 5 Pesewas [pence?] per month.
In Akanming’s youth there were no wooden mortars with pestles. They ginned grains with the buluk-pestles on a flat rock. Neither did they have threshing flails and fishing nets. They only fished with fish-traps (ngabik).


fn88,89a: Inf. Akonlo (bishop of Navrongo)
The Kadema chief ought to be paramount chief of the Bulsa. Sandemnaab became paramount due to the help of a certain Cyprian from Mali or Niger, who had offered his help to the British and the missionaries. He spoke Buli, Kasem, Hausa, English and other languages.
fn88,105b: Inf. Vitus
Aniobe sold the land behind Pung Muning to Goldem. The land is still lying fallow, because both sides fear to farm there. It must not be sold either.
fn88, 107b: Inf. Ayoling Yeri, Badomsa: genealogy of Ayok’s descendants
fn88, 219a: In Fumbisi Michael A. showed me (F.K.) a stone (diameter 3-4 cm, breadth 2 cm) with a perforation. Somebody found it on his field when ploughing. They recognized it as a spindle. In the hole there had probably been s thin stick.
fn88b: Inf. Akanming (Badomsa): Akanming (70-80 years old) did not experience Babatu’s raids, but his father fought against him. The Bulsa did not know any defensive shields. His father wore an untanned cowhide (tuguruk gbain) that covered the whole front of his body up to the neck. On his head he wore a horned helmet. His weapons were: bow and arrows and the kpaani war-axe.
1994,91b: Inf. Danlardy Leander.
The Bulsa had boats in old times. The paddle had a triangular or rectangular shape, every person in the boat had only one paddle.


fn97,3b: Inf. Adama (Wiaga Chiok). Blacksmiths in Buluk. There are blacksmiths in Sandema, Wiaga, Yiwaasi, Fumbisi (presently not very important). There are no blacksmiths in Wiesi, Doninga, Siniensi and Chuchuliga [sic]
Wiaga blacksmiths came from Fumbisi, at first as hiker-blacksmiths. They settled in a place nearer to ths market. For some blacksmiths in Wiaga there is still a marriage ban with Fumbisi.
fn97,13b: mud-bricks in Badomsa. When Aluechari’s compound was founded, they did not know mud-bricks. When Aluechari Yeri was given up, there were only 2 square houses: one in Atinang Yeri and one in Anyenangdu Yeri.
fn97,43a: Wiaga: Smelting iron (observation F.K.). In the past all these iron works were done in the night. The products were sold the next morning.
fn97.46a+b: In the past farmers had to pay one cow for one hoe blade. Only very rich people could afford buying a blade. Others used wooden hoes (batuta, sing. batuk). They used the wood from the charik tree, which grows only in the deep bushland. They had the shape of the iron hoe. The blade was also sharpened.
fn97,47a: Anamogsi: in Babatu’s time they did not bury their people in or near the compounds, but in the bush or on strange lands. Atiim Guuk has no graves, although they looked for them.
fn97, 51a: Inf. Anamogsi: He calls Babatu only Maatu. His father Anyenangdu was a small boy in the time of the slave-raids.


fn 01,3b: Inf. Anamogsi, Badomsa: His father Anyenangdu (without brothers) left the compound of his father Aluechari, because of the danger being attacked by Babatu. He settled in Badomsa in a very rocky area. Anamogsi was a small boy, but remembers it. In the new compound no children were born and there are no graves, i.e. it was only for a few years. When the danger of Babatu was over, he returned to his old settlement (Anamgsi: During the First World War?)
[F.K. Perhaps Babatu had already been beaten completely before Anyenangdu’s moving out]
fn01,40a: Visit and interviews in Yagba together with Jon Kirby. Yagba has no Bulsa section, but there are many Bulsa immigrants. Inf. Moon (SIM): Yagba had been a Bulsa village in the past. Tindaana says that his family descends from the Bulsa and at funerals the tindaana wears a Bulsa war-helmet.
Yagba was a big slave-market. The slaves come from the Bulsa and Sisaala area and were sent to the south. The tree to which the slaves were tied, still exists [F.K.: photo]. The big market of Yagba declined after the coming of “lorries” and Fumbisi took its place. Mamprusi came to Yagba only recently.
Yagba jokes with the Mossi and the Anufo. The Tallensi visit Yagba.
fn01,41a: Yagba (continued) Info: Protestant pastor. The British captured Babatu in Yagba. The ancestors of Yagba came from Savelugu (?) or from Nalerigu (?). They became the chiefs.
fn01,41b: Inf. Anamogsi: Wiaga: Awiag had 4 sons: Asinyang, Ajulok (?), Adogbil, Awaabil;
Conflict (parts of) Sinyangsa and Guuta-Tampienta: This conflict existed already before Babatu. In battles against Babatu the conflicting parties fought on different sides. Today the conflict has partly settled. Only some smaller groups of the two enemies marry only wives from each other.
fn01,44a: Inf. Akumbe of Akisiwun Yeri, Dogbilinsa: History of Wiaga and Dogbilinsa
Founder of Dogbilinsa was Awiag or his son Adogbil. Although Awabil was the elder brother of Adogbil, Dogbilinsa sacrifices to Awiag’s wen (today Akumbe). During the slave-wars the fugitives could not take Awiag’s bogluk with them, and only Dogbilinsa cared for it. Near Awiag’s shrine is the Taaruk Tanggbain and Teng, which were acquired by Adogbil. Adogbil’s shrine is in Akisiwum yeri. Awiag had probably only one wife, the mother of all his sons (including Asinyang). Kom [?], Kpaandem, Guuta and Chantiinsa are all under Dogbilinsa, because they are all “under” Dogbilinsa, because they are “sons”. The Tallensi do not come to Dogbilinsa (kisuk).
Anaapulin’s wen is in Napulinsa (near Chiuk). Yaw (oral information): It is in his compound Apok Yeri, Anaapulin’ Teng and Tanggbain is in Napulinsa in some distance away from Apiok Yeri.
fn01,48b: Inf. Akanzeriba (Guuta) Genealogical table: Descendants of Awiag and Along (Longsa) and the creation of Subsections
Inf. Afelik (W-Longsa): On Akolibiak Guuk (near Afelik’s compound) was a big baobab and a kusung. It had two entrances/exits. When, in the time of Babatu, Akolibiak was sitting in the kusung, he saw a horseman at the entrance and could escape through the other entrance/exit.
fn01,49a: Inf. Akanbonnaab Yeri, Guuta. Subsection Tampienta. Marriages: They do not marry daughters from Guuta (but from other sections of Yisobsa) and from Badomsa and Goldem. Reason: In the time of Babatu Guuta people ran to Goldem and Badomsa, where they were killed and as a revenge Guuta killed people of Goldem and Badomsa. Therefore they marry only wives from their enemies.
Atiim Yeri, Guuta-Tampienta, they do not marry daughters but only wives from Goldem, but from Badomsa they marry daughters. Today they try to lift this taboo.
fn01,51a: wa Bilinsa: Descendants of Awiag up to Alibis (Inf. Wabilinsa-Tuisa)
fn01,52a: Wa Bilinsa: Descendants of Awiag up to Ayisobsa (Inf. Wa Bilinsa-Yog(n)yiensa)
fn01,53a: Genealogical lines: Chandonsa, Chantiinsa and Kpaandem
fn01,60*: Danlardy’s letter: 7. Longsa subsections (Inf. Afelik): Founders were the 3 sons of Along: Ayaaloa, Ayigong and Awaabil; relationship to Awiag is not known. 8. Chiefs of Wiaga: Ayiriwie (Yimonsa, Anankansa Yeri), Aateng, Azenab, Asiuk (enskinned 1948), Aloysius (13.3.89); 9. Awiag’s sons: Aguruma, Afichue, Aningiak, Achang, Ajiak


fn02,20a: Inf. old man in Kadema chief’s house: Ancestors of the Kadema chief (genealogy).
Section: Bayangsa, subsection: Ategbiiroa-bisa; Ategbiiroa’s bogluk is presently at the chief’s house, Abanyang’s bogluk in front of Akpie Yeri (neighbour), the sacrificer, however, is living in Angmangsikperi Yeri. He sacrifices to Abanyang, Akaasa and Atuga. Abanyang’s and Akaasa’s shrines rotate through the 56 compounds of Banyangsa. Atuga’s shrine remains always at the same place, only the office of the sacrificer rotates. They expect Akaasa’s and Abayang’s shrine to return to the chief’s house soon. Abayang’s shrine owns land and cattle, which rotate with the shrine. Ategbiiroa’ s shrine rotates through three compounds.
Old market of Kadema is in Kpikpaluk. It is small, but still frequented.
Tanggbana: Kadema mogi with crocodiles and Ajuik (not animal!) between Kadema and Wiaga.
fn02,22a: Inf. James Walter Angkaning (teacher in Wiaga) from Kanjaga-Samsa (19.12.02); line of his direct ancestors. The ancestral shrine (with land and cattle) of Adung rotates among the 6 compounds of Adung-bisa. Samsa is related to Zogsa and Nyaassa (=Nya-kpienssa). Their common ancestor (shrine with land and cattle) rotates through all the 3 sections.
Samsa: 21-28 compounds, Nyakpiensa (chief’s section): 17-21 compounds, Zogsa: 11 compounds. the common ancestor had been in Zogsa some time ago, but is now in Naasa.
Inf. woman from Kanjaga: all three brothers were sons of Atinjin. Walter 3.1.03: Anyaaring, Azong and Asan are sons of Akanjag. Their sections do not intermarry, in the past they neither married from Kunjingsa (see below). One daughter from Atinjiin’s section married to Wiesi, where she was driven away. She settled in Kanjaga. Samsa decided to regard her and her descendants (Kunjiingsa) as Wiesi people and to marry daughters from her section.
Woman from Apok Yeri: The descendants of the three sons (Anyaaring…) marry now among each other.
22b: Inf. Angmeenbil in Nakpak Yeri (old chief’s house), Wiaga-Yimonsa, 24.12.02
Awume (last chief of Wiaga from Yimonsa) and Ateng (father of Azenaab) were friends. British people demanded people to carry loads from Wiaga to Doninga. Among them was Ateng. When the Whites asked, who the leader of the group was, Ateng said “I”. When they asked who the chief of Wiaga was, Ateng said “I”. Afterwards they enskinned him as chief. After this there is disagreement between Ateng (and his descendants) and Yimonsa. “Ateng stole our chieftaincy”.
Yimonsa chiefs of Wiaga: 1. Ayega (first chief of the whole of Wiaga), 2. his son Awudi, 3. Atiim, 4. Ajata, 5. Akiruk, 6. Akansomsi, 7. Apik (Awume’s father), 8. Awume (lost chieftaincy to Ateng). At Azenab’s election Akasing was contestant. Akanpaginag (Awumi’ son and ko-biamu of Angmeenbil) was contestant at Asiuk’s election. –
22b: Descendent’s of Afichoa, Ayega’s father: genealogical table.
fn02,40b: persons in the old photo with Sandemnaab, from left to right: Azenaab (died Sept. 1947), Azantilow, Anisomnyaansa (Siniensi chief), Aburim Kanbong (Fumbisi), Atebas (elder of Azenaab, in front, left), Ayidibe and Avade (in the background, both were elders of Azantilow).
The occasion of this meeting and the exact year are not known.


fn06,3a: Inf. Fr. van den Haute: History of the catholic parish of Wiaga (cf. BULUK 4)
Fr. Lamaire: April 1957-60, he came from Gbinduuri, Kusasi; also Fr. Marneffe.
Fr. Marneffe and Guitet, came after Lamaire, Guitet left priesthood and married, during my (F:K:) stay 1973-74
Fr. van den Hofen, Dutch, died 1984, his grave is in front of the church
Fr. Kevin Rand, Irish, acting priest, only a short time in Wiaga
Fr. Van den Haute, Belgian, 1984-89 senior priest. When he first came to Wiaga he had to learn Buli. In the Kongo crisis he had to leave Ghana within 48 hours. He went to Burkina, where he stayed for 5 months and where he learnt Mole. The he came back to Ghana for one year for a fixed time.
Fr. Cunningham, Irish (not senior priest) left priesthood and order and married.
fn06,31b: Inf. Grace Assibi: The Church of the Lord Mission, a charismatic movements in Buluk
Inf. Dr. Akanbongnaab (Fumbisi): Akanchoruk, chief of Kanjaga, joined Babatu’s forces. Later he was deposed. Babatu was beaten [at Kanjaga] by the French


fn08,12: Tanggbain of Fiisa, Inf. Ibrahim Alafiisa,
Artefacts in a bimbili pot: parts of a damaged cowrie-belt, 2 biconical foot bangles, one mother-in-law bangle, 3 whole and one damaged marble bangle, one bangle with a circular diameter and many incisions, one bang-gatuk (tri-metallic, twisted);, two rifle-locks (rusted) are booties from fights against Babatu. Fiisa fought in the battle near the Old Primary School, but the rifles were captured in Fiisa. Within the compound there are allegedly two more rifles, which only the teng-nyono is allowed to show.
Azagsuk is the senior tanggbain of Sandema. Siuk and Acham are secondary tanggbana.
Chronological correlations: Inf. Anamogsi; When Akaayabisa was born, Asiuk was chief of Wiaga. Anamogsi was born after Aluechari’s death. When Aluechari was born, Ateng was chief of Wiaga.
fn08,14: Inf. Anamogsi: caverns of refuge from Babatu. Anamogsi knows only the caverns of Zamsa and Posuk, but in the fast there were many caverns of this type. Original owner of the Posuk land was Gbedema, but Wiaga drove them away and today Wiaga is the owner. The cavern was made by today unknown people or animals. The cavern is a tanggbain “Posuk”. The sacrificer came from Longsa, but after Abiila’s death there are no longer any sacrifices.
Hollow baobab: near Pung Muning (direction dam, near Anyiti Guuk); About 1.50m over the ground is a big hole that leads into the tree. Hollow only under the opening down to the ground. Position: 10°38.364′, 1° 16,240′.
fn08,16a: Inf. Wiaganab (26.2.08) The Uwasinaab died in January 2008, but his death has not yet been announced.
Chuchuliga nab: Francis, whom I have known personally through Margaret (Had he also been a nurse in Bolga?)


fn11,10a+b: Kunkwa (under the paramount chief, Prof. Nabila), Inf. Richard, regent of Kunkwa
List of Sections; Chiefs:
1. Asawie: immigrated from Nalerigu. He was not together with Atuga, but was accompanied by a Mamprusi chief from Wulugu, who settled in Kpasinkpe. Asawie was no real chief, but a leader. He should return to Nalerigu, but he fixed a peg (kpasiri) in the ground and said. “Here I will stay”.
2. Akumboti: He was the first real chief of Kunkwa. He had conflicts with Afoko who made people carry heavy logs to Navrongo like slaves.
3. Apanga: Richard’s grandfather. The British deposed him and instead they installed:
4. Akurukpabil: He reigned 7 years, then he was deposed by the British because “he did not obey”, later he was reinstated.
5. Anabil: During his reign Azantilow had his lawsuit in Zuarungu and Accra to get Kunkwa back to Buluk.
6. Awienka: was not recognized as a chief by Richard’s family, because he became chief before the funeral of his predecessor had been held.
7. Yakubu Ayisiyeling: Richard’s father (Yakubu’s father Azaala had not been chief)
8. Ayuekanbe Yakubu Hamza: In 2011 he was a high police officer in Accra. Therefore he installed his younger brother Richard as regent.
9. Richard Yidaana Yakubu: F.K.’s informant, He speaks a good English and has a comprehensive knowledge about Kunkwa’s history and culture.
fn 11,11a: Visit to Jadema. Inf. Alhaji Nasigri Sahku, teacher and assemblyman, chief of Jadema. List of Jadema’s sections and chiefs (all Mamprusi),
Babatu came to Jadema, when Najua was chief. Part of the inhabitants fled to Sakpaaba, a neighbouring village.
11b: Visit of Uwasi: Inf. Akuku, Regent (?), List of sections, plan of the village, chiefs:
1. Awudiuk: He was no real chief, but a leader at the time of Babatu, chiefs after him not known
2. Abiako,
3. Apasukbo (Abowen’s father)
4. Abowen (installed by the British)
5. Akuku (Regent and informant)
All the sections and chiefs are Bulsa. There are no Mamprusi in the village and no mosque, but many Christian churches
fn11,12a+b: Visit together with Fr. Isaac, Inf. Chief of Biuk
All the chiefs came from Biuk, there were no immigrations. Babatu did not appear in Biuk, because the area was very forested. When British people were moving from Navrongo to Kolugu, they were attacked by Biuk (Isaac: because they were stubborn, brave and aggressive).
When the Whites drew the boundary between Buluk and Navrongo, they did not ask Biuk where they wanted to belong to. Biuk and Chuchuliga speak the same Buli dialect (Achula is Avobika’ sister’s son. Avobika’s big bogluk is at the Biuk chief’s house). After the bridge over the Tano had been built, there were conflicts with Chuchuliga, because Ch. wanted the river to remain the boundary, but Biuk had land on the other side of the river. Biuk has good relations to the Nankana, but they want to become part of the Bulsa District. They (including chief) do not speak and understand Nankanni.
Gaani (village): cf. Isaac’s essay in Buluk 5. They are ko-bisa of Biuk, but – except the Biuk chief’s house – they intermarry.
Kologo: Paramount Chief, but no kinship ties to Biuk. Kologo people came from Nalerigu and were originally Mamprusi. Biuk people called them Moshi. They occupied the fertile land without asking anybody for permission. People of Naga tried to drive them away, but Biuk helped Kologo to stay until the British decided that Kologo should have the land. Biuk is not happy about Kologo having become a paramountcy. List of Biuk chiefs:
1. Anyaampo: first known ancestor; Ataa’s father’s father. Under him was the conflict Kologo – Naga. He lived in the time of Babatu.
2. Agigsa: first contact with the British
3. Akankoba: In his reign Ghana became independent (1957)
4. Ataa Akankoba: Informant 2011
fn11,14a: Inf. Wiaganaab. List of the 16 (sub)sections with kambonnalima; Before the British there were no kambonnalima. They are elected similar to the chiefs and can also be deposed by the chief in agreement with his elders.
b: List of the (12) offices of elders of the Wiaganaab; the Wiaga traditional constitution: traditional (local) council: Wiaga and Kadema together; Problems of constituencies and chiefs becoming paramount chiefs.
fn11,19a: Visit to Kategra. Inf. chief, Sections (5), Chiefs: there are 2 compounds that demand chieftaincy
Atumani Alimba (informant): Azue Yeri
Abukari: old chief’s compound
Awienboa: old chief’s compound
Amoaning: Azue Yeri, ruled in the time of Nkrumah.
Babatu came through Kategra, perhaps there were attacks, but no real battle
19b: Visit to Gbedembilisi, Inf. Apatikum (chief was absent); list of all sections; the section of Nyuensa is a separate village on the other side of the river (Mamprusi District).
History: Founder of the village Agbiira came from Gbedema and Gbedembilisi was first regarded as a part of Gbedema. Today people of Gbedembilisa call Gbedema: Gbedema-kpiung
Babatu came to the eastern part of Gbedembilisi. One informant (called “tobacco-smoker) informed the others, who retreated behind the river (mogi-diak). Babatu destroyed millet grainstores and gave the millet to his horses, but he could not find the inhabitants. He had come just in the time of harvest of early millet.
fn11,33a: Inf. posts of Buluk Kaniak: the Kantossi; Lennox Abanya: Alikali was the first Kantossi to arrive in Buluk from Kpaliwungo. Linus Angaabe: Alikali was an educated islamic cleric. Patrick Ajaab: As children we interacted with Alikali every day. Jacob Akisibadek Agyakinla (from Kanjaga): He executed projects in Kpaliworgu [Kpaliwungo] in 2013. A good number of Kpaliwugu speak Buli. They should be invited to the Feok Festival.
Fumbisi: Inf. Daniel Kojo Akaachobli: Awuba’s wen was in Yerima, Afina’s wen in Sinsangsa. Awuba was Afina’s son. Awuba was a business-man and travelled much. Afina was the founder of Fimbisi. Afina’s children were: Asinsang and Akasiuk (same mother).
fn11,34*a+b: Sandema chieftaincy. Inf. Robert Asekabta 2019: The Bagi shrine is sacrificed to by the yeri nyono. The late Francis Afoko is still landlord of all the Ayietas, his son Paul Afoko is acting for him. The next elder (kpagi?) will be Ben Abakisi
Discussions in Buluk Kaniak (April 2020) about Sandema chieftaincy:
Awonboro Azantilow: The present chief’s compound existed before Ayieta and is about 400 years old. Ayieta lived in Agong Yeri (near Abakisi Yeri) and went to the present Palace when he became a bag-nab; Abil had been carried on shoulders out of Balansa to the nab yeri along the road near the present catholic church. Therefore Balansa objected to blocking this road by the catholic church, i.e. they (with the help of Suarinsa) cannot bring the Bag-naab to the Sandem-naab. The road is regarded as sacred.
Akpiok was perhaps Abil’s brother.
Battle of Kanjaga: Saala-biik. On the battlefield is a fallen down baobab that was hit by a cannon ball.
Akanzuwa Paul Adiok: bag nisiuk chose the candidates
Dennis Ayimonsaa: battle of Fiisa or Tuesa?
Lawrence Abakisi: When the Upper Region was created, there were only two Paramountcies: Wa and Sandema. — The Sandema Regent (nansiung-naab) is chosen by the chief. Most chieftaincies in Buluk originated from the gniaknaam (ngiak-naam). Bulsa chiefs wear the zutok-munisa after election. The Sandemnaab wears it only after he has ascended to the Bagnaam (landlord by lineage of age). The Bagnaam is bestowed on him jointly by Suwarinsa and Balansa. After this he is the custodian of shrines.
Jacob Agyakinla: Ngiaknaam is the original chieftaincy.
Awonboro: When Northern Ghana, according to the wish of many kings, tried to become a country of its own, Nkrumah came to Azantilow. When Elizabeth II came to Ghana (Tamale), Azantilow was the leader of the Northern Ghanaian kings.
Kennedy Azantilo: Afoko made Asangalis chief [of Chuchuliga]
Awonboro: Ayieta caused change to Abooma teng in Wiaga. Ayieta’s sister was very powerful. Perhaps she installed Wiaga chief. Afoko sent Nansiungnaab to install chiefs. Agaasa was also feared by his brothers. Azantilow was very liberal. He was the only ruler in the North whom Elizabeth II gave a Ford car. Azantilow was also a friend of Nkrumah. — Azantilow presided over a dispute in Dagbon and Mamprugu. He was never enskinned a Sandemnaab.

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