Franz Kröger

Recent Bulsa Publications



For a long time I did not present recent publications about Bulsa and Buluk. Now we have the opportunity to open and upload over 36 million academic papers by means of “ – Share research” (
The result of one afternoon’s sitting and downloading literature on the Bulsa was a little surprising for me, for much seems to have changed in the last years.
1. The number of papers, most of which I had never heard of before, was tremendously high.
2. A very great number dealt with very specific subjects from natural science, health, economics etc. and not with purely anthropological themes.
3. While the publications of the 20th century were overwhelmingly written by non-Ghanaians, in the following list of publications more than three quarters of the authors seem to have a Ghanaian or at least African name (and among them are quite a lot of Bulsa).
I deemed it appropriate to arrange the articles thematically so that each reader can find information for his/her special interest.
Note: Papers published in our BULUK journal are not included in the following list.


Abbey, Eunice
n.d. The salutogenic perspective on the negative traditional practices affecting the well-being of women in Siniensi Village of Northern Ghana
International Journal of Gender Studies in Developing Societies, Inderscience (Interscience?) Publishers
Eunice Abbey hasn’t uploaded this paper yet (Academia).

Acham Patrick
2020 Decentralization and Development: A Case Study of the Builsa South District Assembly.
Patrick Acham hasn’t uploaded this paper yet (Academia).

Atuire, Caesar Alimsinya
2019? Philosophical Underpinnings of an African Legal System: Bulsa [See review in this issue].

Atuire, Martin Anbegwon
2020 Bleeding Palimpsests: Heritage Tourism and the Commodification of Indigenous Memory in Northern Ghana. PhD dissertation, University of Colorado Boulder [See review in this issue].

Asianab, Paul Akanvariwen and Frank K. Teng-Zeng
2020 Influence of Conditional Cash Transfer on Household Economic Outcomes: Perspective of Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) Beneficiaries in Builsa North District of Ghana. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 10/14
(Abstract) …Though poverty levels in Ghana have declined in terms of’ hard-core poor, the decline in poverty has, however, not been geographically spread equally. Achieving poverty reduction goals in Ghana, the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) Social Grants scheme was introduced as an effective long-term response to extreme poverty among vulnerable groups. This study assessed the influence of LEAP Cash Transfer on the economic outcomes of beneficiaries in the Builsa North District of Upper East Region, Ghana… The study found that LEAP has played a pivotal role at strengthening the economic and social fortunes of majority of vulnerable households. It has enhanced households’ ability to participate in social functions, access education/literacy as human capital asset, and access vast agricultural lands to undertake crop farming activities.

Bukari, Kaderi Noagah
2016 A Concomitant of Conflict and Consensus: Case of a Chieftaincy Succession in Ghana, Peace and Conflict Studies, Publisher: Nova Southeastern University
[Political Science, Peace Conflict Studies]

Teng-Zeng, Frank K.: See Asianab, Paul

Wrigley-Asante, Charlotte and John Baptist A. Agandin
2015  From Sunrise to Sunset: Male Out-Migration and Its Effect on Left-Behind Women in the Builsa District of Ghana.
Gender Issues 32, no 3 (February 25,2015): 184-200.
ABSTRACT …Using in-depth interviews, this paper discusses the economic, social, psychological and emotional effects that women experience as a result of the absence of husbands. Some major findings were that women were expected to work on the farms, feed their children and at the same time support their extended family households. As a result, women experienced different forms of distress arising out of material and social circumstances of their lives, yet not much has been done to address this situation. The paper recommends that interventions for rural women must take into account the experiences of left-behind women. Particularly, the emotional needs of these women must be considered by providing counselling services in addition to the economic empowerment programmes.


Amagnya, Moses
2019 Factors Affecting Education in the Builsa District of Northern Ghana. Africa Education Review, Publisher: Informa UK Ltd, 23 Pages

Barich, Barbara
2009 Riscoperta Di Una Cultura: Koma-Bulsa Nel Ghana Settentrionale
Publisher: Africa: Rivista trimestrale di studi e documentazione dell’Istituto italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente
Barbara Barich hasn’t uploaded this paper.

Kröger, Franz
2013 Rotation without Genealogy: the Office of the Rainmaker in Yikpabongo. Contemporary Journal of African Studies. Vol. 1, 1, S. 111-116.
[The author compares the rotation system as it exists in the inheritance of shrines, offices and material goods among the Bulsa with that of the Koma]

Kröger, Franz
2013 Das Böse im göttlichen Wesen. Der Mungokult der Bulsa und Koma (Nordghana). Anthropos 108,2 S. 495-513.
[Paper written in German. The paper analyses the evil qualities in spiritual beings which are venerated by the Bulsa and Koma of Northern Ghana. In particular the mongoose, in both its animal shape and as a spiritual being, is regarded as malignant and harmful. Surprisingly, the Bulsa mongoose is associated and sometimes even equated with a particular ancestress, namely the shrine-owner’s mother’s mother. In addition, war and bloodshed are often strongly associated with the mongoose-shrine. Among the Nankana, it can only be acquired by men who have killed another human being. These widely differing meanings and functions can perhaps be ascribed to the deep fear of a powerful and malicious supernatural being and by the desire to overcome this fear through ritual activities]

Kröger, Franz
2022 Die Bulsa Bildungselite als ethnologisches Forschungsobjekt. Diskussionen in einer Bulsa Facebook Gruppe. In: Roland Hardenberg, Josephus Platenkamp, Thomas Widlok (Hrsg.): Ethnologie als angewandte Wissenschaft. Das Zusammenspiel von Theorie und Praxis. Berlin: Reimer Verlag, p. 131-155.

Franz Kröger hasn’t yet uploaded this paper (Academia).

Saboro, Emmanuel (University of Cape Coast, Ghana)
2013 Songs of Sorrow, Songs of Triumph: Memories of the Slave Trade among the Bulsa of Ghana. In. A. Bellangamba, S. Greene, and M. Klein (eds.) Bitter Legacy: African Slavery Past and Present. pp. 133-147. Princeton, NJ: Marcus Weiner.

Saboro, Emmanuel
2016 The burden of memory: Oral and material evidence of human kidnapping for enslavement and resistance strategies among the Bulsa and Kasena of Ghana. Africology: Journal of Pan-African Studies 9 (4): 111-130.
Introduction: …This paper adopts a multi-disciplinary approach in exploring how the kidnapping and selling of people, and especially the threats and violence of predation and enslavement, among the Bulsa and Kasena of Ghana during the latter part of the nineteenth century continues to linger in their cultural memory. The paper also discusses how these subaltern groups continue to survive the legacy of a traumatic remembrance, an experience associated with human kidnapping for enslavement. But more importantly, the paper pays particular attention to how these two communities adapted and resisted the threats of violence and enslavement through flight and the exploiting of their unique landscape and topography, and local architecture as strategies against the violence of predation and captivity from kidnapping for enslavement…

Saboro, Emmanuel
2017 The Wound and the Voice: Verbal Articulations of Enslavement among the Bulsa and Kasena of Ghana. Nordic Journal of African Studies 26 (1), 34-61.


Akanlig-Pare, George
2020 Palatalization in Central Buli. In: Legon Journal of the Humanities. Vol. 31,2, pp. 66-94. [p. 69: …Though largely homogenous, Bùlì can be said to have three main dialects, namely, the Northern, Southern, and Central dialects. The Northern dialect is spoken mostly in Chuchuliga and surrounding towns such as Chaana and Biuk. The Southern dialect, on the other hand is spoken in the entire Bulsa South District. The Central dialect is spoken in Wiaga, Sandema and Kaadema, which are in the Bulsa North District. In most cases, the Northern and Southern dialects share more commonalities with each other than with the Central dialect. The main systematic features that distinguish these dialects are phonological-both segmental and tonal.

Akanlig-Pare, George (& Ken Hiraiwa)
2022 Syntax of reduplication and negative-polarity items in Buli. Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America May 5, 2022, Semantics and Pragmatics, Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America; 13 pages
[Syntax, Generalization, Reduplication, Counterexample]

Kröger, Franz and His Bulsa Collaborators (Augustine Akanbe, Margaret Arnheim, Rev. James Agalic, Danlardy Leander, Yaw Akumasi, Robert Asekabta and Rose Ajuik)
2020 Buli Language Guide (Trial Edition), Lippstadt, 99 pages, 94 colour photos).


Aborigo, Raymond
2018 The role of community-based health services in influencing postnatal care visits in the Builsa and the West Mamprusi districts in rural Ghana. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 9 Pages
[Nursing, Medicine, Maternal and Child Health, Public health systems and services research, Paediatrics and reproductive medicine]

Achuroa, David Akanpentiba
2018 Conceptualizations of Children with Disabilities among the Bulsa of Northern Ghana, Master’s Thesis; Prism: University of Calgary’s Digital Repository, Graduate Studies: The Vault: Electronic Theses and Dissertations (144 pages).
From his abstract: …This research explores how children with disabilities (CWDs) are conceptualized in Bulsa traditional healthcare, in the context of a system that many anthropologists have studied with reference to shrines. …As a way to uncover what CWDs signify in the shrine system, the research entailed interviewing fifty informants and conducting five household group discussions. Some individuals interviewed were parents of CWDs. The thesis research was also informed by my own lived experience with disability in Bulsa society. The investigations found that the role of the shrine system in disability and illness management in Bulsa society included two dimensions: ingestion of herbs and drugs; and reverence for invisible agencies, such as wen, jadok, and their associated processes.

Bisianin, Kombian
2013 Factors Associated With Choice of Place For Delivery In Builsa North District Of Ghana – Part 1: Perception Of Care
Poor utilization of health facilities during delivery by pregnant mothers is still a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Ghana. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with choice of place for delivery in Builsa north district in Upper East Region of Ghana. This was a descriptive community-based cross sectional study

Diakite, Mahamadou, co-authors (?): Doumbia, Cheick Oumar and Diara, Saamba
2021 Factors Associated With The Adherence To Unsupervised Daily Dose To Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention In Builsa North District, Upper East Region Of Ghana. Research Square Platform LLC
Background: Since 2015, SMC with amodiaquine–sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ–SP) has been implemented during the high malaria transmission season in three regions of Ghana. Adherence to the Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) is one of the critical determinants for successfully protecting children under five. In Ghana, there is limited evidence of sociodemographics and awareness factors associated with adherence to SMC. The purpose of this study was to explore the adherence level to SMC and the factors associated with adherence to SMC among caregivers in Builsa North District. Methods: In four (4) sub-district households in the Builsa North District, a cross-sectional study was conducted. The district was stratified into six, and four subdistricts were selected using simple random sampling. The 438 participants were recruited via balloting using a random sampling procedure. Illustrative summary statistics performed for frequencies.

Diara, Saamba: see Diakite, Mahamadou

Doumbia, Cheick Oumar: see Diakite, Mahamadou

Dun-dery, Elvis junior
2019 Correlates of mistime pregnancy and unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in Sandema, Ghana, Publisher: Research Square 23 Pages
Background: …A cross-sectional community based study was used, involving the use of multi-step cluster sampling methods in selecting 300 women of reproductive age. The study was quantitative in nature, using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Results: More than half (66%) of the women in reproductive age still had unmet need, 71% were currently pregnant and 36% confirmed ever having a mistimed pregnancy. Overall, 53% of the women confirmed never communicating on family planning issues with their partners, a little below half (45%) of the respondents took their own health care decisions and 79% ever received family planning service…

Otupiri, E.
2010, Determinants of Under-Five Mortality in Builsa District, Upper East Region, Ghana
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) Publisher: African Journals Online, 9 Pages
[Geography, Determinants, Science Technology, Case Control Study]


Angyiereyiri, Elijah Dakorah
2020 Effect and infestation levels of groundnut pod borer (Elasmolomus sordidus) on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and farm control measures in Tedema, Builsa-North District of the Upper East Region, Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, Springer Science and Business Media LLC 10 Pages
[Zoology, Agronomy, Biology, Infestation, Arachis Hypogaea]

Appiah-Adjei, Christina
n.d., Farm households’ choice of strategies in response to floods in the Builsa-North district, Ghana, Climate and Development, Publisher: Informa UK Limited
[Environmental Sciences]
Appiah-Adjei, Christina hasn’t uploaded this paper.

Yorose, William Aduah
2018 Flooding and livelihood adaptation strategies of farmers in the Builsa south and Talensi Districts in the Upper East Region
…This study examined the effects of flooding on farmers’ livelihood and the adaptation strategies of farmers to ensure food security. Using cross-sectional and descriptive study designs, a concurrent mixed method approach involving both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were used. The sample size of 343 respondents was selected using multi-stage and simple random sampling techniques. In addition, four key informants were purposively selected for in-depth interviews while two focus group discussions with male and female farmer groups were also conducted. Analysis of data involved the application of descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. The study found that respondents largely had access to farmlands for crop production even though …
(not yet uploaded to Academia)


Atuick, Evans
2015 Cell Phones and Alienation among Bulsa of Ghana’s Upper East Region: “The Call Calls You Away” African Studies Review (Apr 1, 2015)
[Social Change, African Studies, Multidisciplinary, Interpersonal Relationships]
Many scholars have concluded, perhaps prematurely, that information and communication technologies (ICTs) are inherently empowering for Africans. In order to look more closely at the impact of ICTs on relationships and society, this article focuses on everyday life. Specifically, it uses ethnographic methods and the theory of “affordances”.
Evans Atuick hasn’t uploaded this paper.

Dietz, Ton see Obeng, F.

Obeng, Francis (Co-Authors: T. Dietz and F. Zaal)
2009 Participatory, holistic evaluation of development initiatives in Sandema (Builsa District) Upper East Region Ghana,, 97 Pages
[Citizen Journalism]


von Quadt, Albrecht
2006 The age and origin of the Chuchuliga and Rozino granites, Eastern Rhodopes
Proceedings of National…Publisher:
Albrecht von Quadt hasn’t uploaded this paper.

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