Francis Aboanchab Azognab (Very Rev., MPhil)

Should Christians Attend Traditional Funeral Celebrations?

Very Rev. Azognab

Abridged and revised extracts from his thesis submitted to the Department of Religious Studies in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for Master of Philosophy in Religious Studies. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Very Rev. Francis Aboanchab Azognab, born in the 1970s, is a native of Sandema Abiliyeri. He holds Diploma in Theology from the University of Ghana, Legon, Bachelor of Theology from Trinity Theological Seminary, Legon, Master of Philosophy (Mphil.) from the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. He has been a Rev. Minister in the Methodist Church Ghana for ten years now. Currently, Very Rev. Azognab serves as the Superintendent Minister of the Yendi Circuit of the Methodist Church Ghana. He is also the Evangelism and Mission Coordinator of the Tamale Diocese of the Methodist Church.

Title of his thesis:
Christian Theological Assessment of Death, Funeral Rites and Rituals among the Bulsa.

 

(Chapter 4.5)

Christian Participation in the Death and Funeral Rites and Rituals among the Bulsa

One of the things I sought to research into as part of my research objectives was the Bulsa Christians’ responses to the theological implications of the Bulsa funeral rites and rituals. In our field research therefore, I asked a series of questions to ascertain the situation… to selected pastors and lay preachers on their theological stance on the Bulsa Funerals and the results are found below.

The first question for this category of interviewees was: What are your views on the Christian participation in Bulsa death and funeral rites and rituals. Five (5) pastors and lay preachers out of the fifteen (15) responded that Christians should not participate in Bulsa death and funeral rites at all. Their reasons were that “some aspects of these death and funeral rites and rituals are demonic and against the Christian doctrine” (endnote 1, Interview Azerichaab 2018). Bulsa funeral rites and rituals are expensive and against the Christian doctrine and should not be participated by any Christian” (endnote2, Interview D. Asekabta 2017) – “One cannot participate in the Bulsa cultural practices, such as funeral rite and rituals without participating in their worship, it is not possible” (endnote3, Interview Ayaga 2017).  The views of the above respondents that Christians should not participate in any aspect of the Bulsa funeral rites and rituals at all, confirms my initial observations. In my problem statement, I noted that sometimes some of the Bulsa traditional practices, including death and funeral rites and rituals come into conflict with the Christian beliefs and practices. For this reason a number of the Bulsa Christians decide not to have anything to do with Bulsa Traditional ceremonies at all. From the above responses, it is evident that the situation exists. The above stance of the respondents that Christians should abstain from every aspect of the Bulsa death and funeral rites and rituals is in variance with Peter Sarpong’s remarks about the early missionaries’ views on the African socio-religious practices and institutions. Regarding this, Sarpong (2016: 93) stated:

The missionaries having been armed by this sort of distorted information, came to rid the African of the grip of the devil. Whatever practices and institutions the African had were condemned outright. Hence totally innocuous customs like funeral rites, puberty ceremonies, rites of passage, which were, in fact, the mainstay of the good life, commendable behaviour and praise-worthy conduct were forbidden. Innocent Ghanaian dances were prohibited (endnote 4) .

From the statement above, it is obvious Sarpong does not agree with the early missionaries’ attitude towards the African cultural practices… For Sarpong these practices were the mainstay of the good life of the people. Surely, Sarpong would therefore disagree with the five respondents’ stances above, that Bulsa Christians should not participate in any aspect of the death and funeral rites and rituals among the Bulsa. Cultural and traditional issues have, in the past, been handled with care with the cultural environment in mind among the Christians. “In the world in which Christianity emerged, death was a private affair, funeral rites, as well as forms of burial and commemoration, varied as much as the people and the ecology of the region in which Christianity developed and spread” (endnote 5, Upton 1990: 140) …
I analyzed that the five respondents above do not consider the fact that the culture, traditions and customs of the Bulsa have made them who they are and that for the Bulsa Christians to avoid every aspect of their funeral rites and rituals, part of which do not necessarily go contrary to the Christian faith, will amount to what is described as a cultural alienation, the situation where one dissociated oneself from one’s own cultural practices…
The Jews, Greeks and Romans… lived and practised their cultures before the coming of Jesus through whom Christianity first emerged. This is why it is safe in talking about Christian funerals today to assert that the early roots of the Christian tradition of burial can be found in the Pre-Christian cultures, namely, the Jewish and Greco-Roman cultures (endnote 6, Atinga 2006: 100) … Bulsa should therefore not be alienated from their own God given cultural practices if such practices are not contrary to the Christian scriptures. There is evidence that early Christians did not make sharp changes in their cultural practices where such practices were not against the teachings of the scriptures.

In spite of the centrality of death in the theology and spiritual
anthropology of early Christians, they were slow to develop specifically Christian responses to death and dying. The most immediate change was that Christians handled the bodies of the dead without fear of pollution. The purification of baptism was permanent, unless marred by mortal sin, and the corpse of a Christian prefigured the transformed body that would be resurrected into eternal life at the end of time (endnote 7, Upton 1990:140).

… No wonder, the rest of the ten (10) respondents held that “Christians can participate in aspects [parts] of the death and funeral rites and rituals among the Bulsa that are not against the teachings of their churches” (endnote8, Interview Adekaldu 2018). – “As people who live together in the same communities, we cannot avoid sympathizing with those who are bereaved, and more so as social beings and as Bulsa, we cannot relinquish our culture, especially if it does not go against our Christian doctrines and practices  (endnote 9). ”The ten respondents posited further that “Christians can only avoid taking part in some aspects of the rituals that may go contrary to the Christian doctrine (endnote 10) -“In my opinion, we, the Christians can participate in the Bulsa funeral rites and rituals, except that we must be selective in doing so (endnote11, Interview Ataavari 2017).” The last ten respondents seem to have a point. I agree with them that it is not the entire death and funeral rites and rituals that go contrary to the Christian doctrines or the teachings of the Bible and therefore Christians may participate in some aspect that do not go against their teachings. It is important however, for Christians to guide against syncretism (the fusion of different systems or beliefs). Apart from that the Bulsa funeral rites could be modified to be used by the Bulsa Christians. “The Roman funeral Liturgy (Christian), was generally influenced by Pre-Christian funeral practices but then was modified, transformed, justified, inspired and celebrated by the Church’s faith in the resurrection (endnote121, Owusu 1993: 3).” The above statement means the Roman Catholic Church in the past adopted portions of the Roman funeral liturgy (the liturgy of the traditional people of Rome).
Christian participation in aspects of funeral rites and rituals among the Bulsa may go a long way to encourage dialogue of life, sustain communalism, religious pluralism, peace and development in the Bulsa Communities. Although it may be debated that it is not an easy task to identify which aspects of the rituals are against the teachings of the Christian scriptures. This may be the very reason why some Bulsa Christians do not participate in any aspect of the death and funeral rites and rituals among the Bulsa.

The second interview question for this category of respondents was: Why do some Bulsa Christians refuse to take part in the Bulsa death and funeral rites and rituals? All the fifteen (15) respondents said the reason was because aspects of the Bulsa death and funeral rites and rituals are contrary to the teachings of the Holy Bible and their churches’ doctrines. “It may be due to lack of understanding and the fact that large parts of the funeral rites of the Bulsa do not march with the Christian faith (endnote  13, Interview D. Ayarik 2017).” Further interviews show that, “Participation in the Bulsa funeral rites and rituals may lead a Christian to backslide from the Christian faith (endnote 14, Interview Amaadum 2017).” –  “We do not participate in the Bulsa funeral rites and rituals because part of the practices are idol worship (endnote 15, Interview D. Asekabta 2017).”  The responses above make it clearer that some Christians do not participate in the Bulsa death and funeral rites and rituals on theological and doctrinal basis. The beliefs of some Bulsa Christians make them avoid every aspect of the Bulsa funerals.
It implies that as some of the Bulsa Christians live together with their family and friends in the same communities, they may not be able to avoid every form of the death and funeral rites and rituals. If they do, they may be seen to be shirking their social responsibilities as family or community members. In this way, they may be branded social deviants…
One other reason which is social in nature that necessitates the participation of all Bulsa, no matter their religious background, in at least, aspects of the death and funeral rites and rituals among the Bulsa is the issue of inheritance among the people. Evans A. Atuick argued rightly that the completion of funeral rites forms the basis for succession to positions or property among the Bulsa (endnote 16, Atuick 2013: 36-42).
This stance was confirmed in our field research. When someone dies among the Bulsa, it is after the juka (final rituals) that his or her property is shared (endnote 17, Interview Anab Anankansa 2018). So sometimes some perform the rites in order to pave the way for the sharing of the property of the deceased. Some Bulsa Christians also participate in the Bulsa funeral rites for the same reasons (endnote 18, Interview Azerichaab 2018). The communal nature of the Africans, and in this matter of the Bulsa, makes it extremely difficult for the Bulsa Christians to avoid in totality, the cultural practices, and in this case, death and funeral rites and rituals among their traditional religious believers (endnote 19, Interview Atemboa 2018).

The third interview question was: How do you assess the Bulsa death and funeral rites? Out of the fifteen pastors and lay preachers interviewed, five of them postulated that Bulsa death and funeral rites are demonic, expensive and leave the people poor and should therefore be abolished (endnote 20, Interview D. Asekabta 2018). In analyzing the above position of the five respondents regarding their assessments of the Bulsa death and funeral rites, I do not see with them that every aspect of the Bulsa death and funeral rites are evil and hence deserve abolition as suggested.
First, there are similarities identified so far between the rites of the Bulsa and that of the Christians, though there are also differences. Again in examining the social benefits of the Bulsa funeral rites and rituals in the previous paragraphs, it is obvious that one should not propose total abolition of the practices which in itself is untenable, it will tear the Bulsa families apart and create a vacuum between the Bulsa and the Bulsa Christians. The rest of the ten (10) pastors and lay preachers on the other hand assess the Bulsa death and funeral rites and rituals to be good except that aspects of them do not agree with the Christian doctrine. They argued that as Bulsa, the Bulsa Christians cannot abolish their cultural practices (endnote 21, Interviews Atemboa, Alanpung, Akumzuri 2018). They proposed that aspects of the funeral ritual be amended to allow Christians to get fully involved in the burial and funeral rites of their own (endnote 22).

[Fourth question] I further interviewed the pastors and lay preachers on their churches’ doctrines on the Bulsa death and funeral rites and rituals. This question was framed, “what is your church’s doctrine on the Bulsa death and funeral rites and rituals.” In this regard, five (5) out of the fifteen (15) pastors and lay preachers again, said the Bulsa death and funeral rites and rituals are totally contrary to their church doctrines (endnote 23, Interview D. Asekabta 2018). That their churches have their own funeral liturgies and do not recognizes that of the Bulsa traditional death and funeral rites and rituals (Ibd). The rest of the ten (10) pastors and lay preachers interviewed said though their church doctrines are different from that of the Bulsa people, the churches do permit the members to participate in aspects of the Bulsa death and funeral rituals that are not against their church doctrines (endnote 25, Interview V.J. Yarfo 2018).
Among this group were the pastors of the Good News Bible Church who had developed a post burial liturgy for their Bulsa Christians deceased (endnote 26, Interview Atenboa 2018). In that interview I analyzed that the new liturgy of the Good News Bible Church does not include many aspects of the rites and rituals of the Bulsa. What I analyzed from the above is that while some of the Christian denominations may practise what is described as syncretism (the fusion of two or more different belief systems), others are involved in religious extremism. Religious extremism is where the religious people hold the views that it is only through their denominations that one can be saved, and hence, see every practice of other denominations or religion as sinful. While syncretism has the tendency of creating religious laxity, extremism may bring about disturbance of the peace of a community…

 

(Chapter 4.6)

Theological Similarities and Differences of Death, Funeral Rites and Rituals in the Bulsa and the Christian Funerals

The last interview question for the pastors and lay preachers was: Are there any similarities between the funeral rites and rituals among the Bulsa and the Christians funerals? All the fifteen (15) respondents answered in the affirmative. All the pastors and the lay preachers responded that there are similarities and differences between the two as far as death, funeral rites and rituals are concerned. Some of the similarities listed by the respondents are as follows: They made the point that death is not the end of the human life for both the Christians and the Bulsa (endnote 27, Interview Atemboa 2018). Both the Christians and the Bulsa believe that every human lives after death (endnote 28, Interviews Atemboa, Alanpung, Akumzuri 2018). Analysing the above, I see that death has been an integral and inevitable part of every human life no matter the culture or religion…

This confirms Harold Turner’s conceptual framework stated earlier (endnote 29, 1977:27-37). Believers, the traditionalist and the Christians, believe in the afterlife but with different perceptions and understanding. While the Bulsa believe the soul of the person goes to a place called Kpilung (the land of the living dead) when the funeral rites are fully done in the right way, the Christians on the other hand believe the soul goes to heaven where God lives if the person concerned lived in Christ before death (endnote 30, Interview V.J. Yarfo 2018). The question of heaven and hell and the final judgment is not the focus of the Bulsa, but the Christians (endnote 31, Interviews Atemboa, Alanpung, Akumzuri 2018).
With the Bulsa, life in Kpilung is just like life in this world, only that life is perfect there (endnote 32, Interview Alanpung 2018). People still do normal work there. That is why the deceased person needs to be given the necessary things that are needed to start life there in Kpilung. The fowls and sheep and other animals used for the rituals are purported to be carried there for rearing. According to the respondents, for the Christians however, Heaven is where God lives and those who go there go to be with God and to worship Him forever (endnote 33, Interview D. Ayarik 2018). There is no more work and suffering. For the Christians, material things end in this world.
One other difference is that while the Bulsa perform post burial (the kuub kumsa) rituals, the Christian death and burial rituals end after the burial (endnote 34, Interview Aborik 2017), though from time to time, memorial services might be held for some Christians. It has become clear that among the Bulsa, the burial ritual alone does not make up the totality of their funeral ritual. It has to be backed up and completed by an elaborate post-burial ritual that is even more complicated than the burial ritual. Until this post-burial ritual is celebrated, the funeral is not considered done. This is not the case with the Christian ritual and this marks a significant difference between the Bulsa idea of funeral and that of the Christian conception (endnote 35, Interview Adekaldu 2018). Also, the respondents stated that the structure and processes of the Bulsa death and funeral rites and the funeral liturgies of the Christians vary. While the Bulsa death rites involved so many material elements and ritual meals, the Christian funeral liturgy does not involve much of those (endnote 36, Interview Ataavari 1917). It is observed that this is based on their differences in the belief of the afterlife and the nature and life in the land beyond between the Christians and the Traditionalists. In theological terms the ancestral world as heaven viewed from the literal perspective may not, strictly speaking, be compared to the Christian notion of heaven. This is because the literal imagination of the Bulsa ancestral world (Kpilung) is located in a world from where they influence the living and to where all must go after death (endnote 37, Interview Anankansa 2018). In another sense, however the Bulsa concept of Kpilung portrays a connotation of a life of peace and in the presence of the ancestors and God. This understanding is similar to that of the Christian understanding of heaven.
The Pastors and the Lay preachers postulated further that for both the Christians and Bulsa traditionalists, the living are duty bound or play an important role in the final settlement of the deceased into heaven or Kpilung respectively. These roles the living play include their funeral celebrations, prayers and rites and rituals before, during after burials and funerals. In other words, both the Christians and the Bulsa traditionalist consider it a duty to initiate the process for the transition of their members through the funeral rites and prayers (endnote 38, Interview Adekaldu 2018). The pastors and the lay preachers also said there are some similarities in the belief in the existence of a certain relationship between the living and the dead between the Bulsa traditionalists and Christians. This relationship is understood and explained in different and diverse ways by the different religions and cultures. What is common to the Christians and Bulsa however, is the fact that, there is a relationship between the dead and the living. In the Christian doctrine, the relationship between the living and the dead is described as the Communion of the Saints mentioned earlier. This can be found in the liturgy books of both the Catholic and the Evangelical Churches. The Apostle’s Creed (endnote 39, Oliver 2001: 87-88) is an example.
The Christians have two groups of members who are seen as united and in communion with one another. These are the Church Militant (the church on earth/the visible church or the living members) and the Church Glorified (the church in heaven/the invisible church or the dead in Christ) – (endnote 40, Interview Ayaga 2018). On the other hands, for the Bulsa, the relationship between the living and the dead is very obvious in the belief and practice of the ancestral veneration discussed earlier in this work (endnote 41, Kröger 1978). Both the living and the dead form one big family and are in constant relationship and communion. It is therefore believed that during funerals, the ritual meals such as the cheri saab and the kpaam tuei are meant to be eaten by both the dead and the living (endnote 42, Interview Anankansa 2018). Also, the dead are sometimes nourished by their living relatives through libation and sacrifices while the living intern receive spiritual blessings from their departed relatives, whom, as a result of their death, attained greater spiritual power.

CONCLUSION

From the discussions so far, it is obvious that the Bulsa Christian often finds himself or herself in a difficult position in which aspects of the funeral rites to participate or not to participate. Following this research, part of my recommendations were that the various religious denominations in Buluk should formulate new funeral liturgies for both the burial and post burial celebrations of Bulsa Christian funerals. This will enable all Christians to participate fully in the funeral rites and still avoid syncretism.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

(contains only publications mentioned in the above excerpt)

Atuick, Evans A., ‘‘Are Bulsa Final Funerals Really Expensive?’’ In Kröger (ed.): BULUK-Journal of Bulsa Culture and History No.7 (2013), 36-42.

Kröger, Franz, “Traditional Bulsa Religion,” BULUK – Journal of Bulsa Culture and Society No 4  (2005), 39-42.

Oliver, O. G., “Apostle’s Creed”. In: Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Second Edition, Walter A. Elwell (ed.), Grand Rapids: Baker Publishing Group, 2009.

Owusu, Vincent, The Roman Funeral Liturgy. History, Celebration and Theology, Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 1993.

Sarpong, Peter Kwasi, Archbishop Sarpong Explains Key Christian Topics. Accra: Standard Newspapers and Magazines Limited, 2016.

Turner, Harold: The Primal Religions of the World and their Study. In: V.C. Hayes (ed.): Australian Essays in World Religions. Adelaide 1977, 27-37.

Upton, J. ‘‘Burial, Christian”. In: Peter Fink, (ed.). The New Dictionary of Sacramental Worship. Collegeville, Minnesota: 1990, 140-149.

 

APPENDIX: LIST OF INTERVIEWEES

(contains only names mentioned in the above excerpt)

Name,   Status,   Community,   Date of Interview

Aborik, Kwame, Catechist in the Roman Catholic Church, Interview: 2017

Adekaldu, Albert A.,  Pastor, Assemblies of God, Sandema,  Interview: April/June, 2018

Akumzuri, George, Pastor, Good News Bible Church, Chuchuliga, Interview: April/June, 2018

Alampung, Stephen, Pastor, Good News Bible Church, Sandema, Interview: April/June, 2018

Amaadum, Joseph, Lay Preacher, Methodist Church Ghana, Kadema, Interview: April 2017

Anab Anakansa, Funeral personnel, Abiliyeri, Sandema, Interview: April/June, 2018

Asekabta, Donatus, Pastor, Calvary Charismatic Center, Wiaga, Interview: April and June 2018

Ataavari, Matthew, Presiding Elder, Church of Pentecost, Sandema, Interview: January 2017

Atemboa, George, Pastor, Good News Bible Church, Sandema-Kori, Interview: April and June, 2018

Ayaga, Stanley, Lay Preacher, Methodist Church, Chuchuliga, Interview: January 2017, April 2018

Ayarik, Daniel, District Pastor, Assemblies of God Church, Buluk, Interview: January 2017

Azerichaab, Peter, Lay Preacher, Assemblies of God, Sandema, Interview: April 2018

Yarfoh, Vitus Joy, Pastor, Great Commission Exploits, Sandema, Interview: April/June, 2018

 

ENDNOTES

1 An interview with Peter Azerichaab, Lay Preacher, Assemblies of God, Sandema in April 2018.
2 An interview with Pastor Donatus Asekabta, Calvary Charismatic Centre, Wiaga in January 2017.
3 An interview with Stanely Ayaga, a lay preacher in the Methodist Church Ghana, Chuchuliga in January, 2017.
4 Peter Kwasi Sarpong, Archbishop Sarpong Explains Key Christian Topics (Accra, Standard Newspapers and Magazines Limited. 2016), 93.
5 J. Upton, “Burial”, Christian, ed. Peter Fink, 140-149, 140.
6 Samuel A. Atinga. Death and Dying: A Study of the Mortuary Rites of the Frafra of Northern Ghana in the Light of the Christian Funeral Liturgy, an Attempt at Enculturation (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2006), 100.
7 J. Upton, “Burial”, Christian, ed. Peter Fink, 140-149, 140.
8 An interview with Reverend Albert Adekaldu, head pastor, Assemblies of God, Sandema in April 2018
9 An interview with Reverend Albert Adekaldu, head pastor, Assemblies of God, Sandema in April 2018.
10 An interview with Reverend Albert Adekaldu, head pastor, Assemblies of God, Sandema in April 2018.
11 An interview with Matthew Ataavari, a Presiding Elder of the Church of Pentecost, Sandema in January, 2017. 12 Owusu, The Roman Funeral Liturgy, 3.
13 An interview with Pastor Daniel Ayarik, District Pastor, Assemblies of God Church, Buluk, in January 2017.
14 An interview with Joseph Amaadum, a lay preacher in the Methodist Church Ghana, Kadema, in April 2017
15 An interview with Pastor Donatus Asekabta, Calvary Charismatic Centre, Wiaga in January 2017.
16 Evans Atuick, “Are Bulsa Final Funerals Really Expensive?” 2013.
17 An interview with Anab Anankansa of Abiliyeri, Sandema, 12th June, 2018.
18 An interview with Peter Azerichaab, Lay Preacher, Assemblies of God, Sandema in April 2018.
19 An interview with George Atemboa, Stephen Alanpung and George Akumzuri, all pastors of the Good News Bible Church in Buluk, in April, 2018.
20 An interview with Donatus Asekabta, a Pastor in Calvary Charismatic Center, Wiaga on 20th June, 2018.
21 An interview with George Atemboa, Stephen Alanpung and George Akumzuri, all pastors of the Good News Bible Church in Buluk, in April, 2018.
22 An interview with George Atemboa, Stephen Alanpung and George Akumzuri, all pastors of the Good News Bible Church in Buluk, in April, 2018.
23 An interview with Donatus Asekabta, a Pastor in Calvary Charismatic Center, Wiaga on 20th June, 2018
24 An interview with Donatus Asekabta, a Pastor in Calvary Charismatic Center, Wiaga on 20th June, 2018.
25 An interview with Vitus Joy Yarfo, a pastor of Great Commission Exploits, a church in Sandema in May, 2018
26 An interview with George Atemboa, a pastor in the Good News Bible Church, Kori on 5th May, 2018.
27 An interview with George Atemboa, a pastor in the Good News Bible Church, Kori on 5th May, 2018.
28 An interview with George Atemboa, Stephen Alanpung and George Akumzuri, all pastors of the Good News Bible Church in Buluk on 5th May, 2018.
29 Harold Turner, “The Primal Religions of the World,” 1977, 27-37.
30 An interview with Vitus Joy Yarfoh, a pastor of Great Commission Exploits, Sandema in April, 2018.
31 An interview with George Atemboa, Stephen Alanpung and George Akumzuri, all pastors of the Good News Bible Church in April, 2018.
32 An interview with Stephen Alanpung, a pastor in charge of the Good News Bible Church, Sandema, 5th May, 2018.
33 An interview with Daniel Ayarik, a pastor of the Assemblies of God Church, Fumbisi in April, 2018.
34 An interview with Kwame Aborik, a catechist in the Roman Catholic Church, Sandema in April 2017.
35 An interview with Albert Adekaldu, the pastor of the Assemblies of God in Sandema in April, 2018.
36 An interview with Mathew Ataavari, an Elder of the Church of Pentecost, Sandema
37 An interview with Anaab Anankansa in Sandema, 12th January, 2018.
38 An interview with Albert Adekaldu, the district pastor of the Assemblies of God in Sandema in April, 2018.
39 O. G. Oliver, Apostle’s Creed. In: Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, Second Edition, Walter A. Elwell (ed.), Grand Rapids: Barker Academic, 2001, 87-88.
40 An interview with Stanley Ayaga, a lay preacher of the Methodist Church, Chuchuliga Nanjopiung in April, 2018.
41 Franz Kröger, “Bulsa Traditional Religion,” Buluk, Journal of Bulsa Culture and Society No 4 (2005), pp. 39-42.
42 An interview with Anaab Anankansa in Sandema, 12th January, 2018.

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