UNDER CONSTRUCTION  (incomplete and unrevised)

Franz Kröger

Buli names and their explanations

Preliminary remark:

All the names of persons begin with A in Buli, the language of the Bulsa. Unless otherwise stated (w = female name), the names can be given to male and female children. Names with the suffixes –lie or –pok are always female. Notes on names, types, and functions of names, etc. can be found in:

Kröger, Franz, 1978: Übergangsriten im Wandel. Kindheit, Riefe und  Heirat bei den Bulsa in Nordghana (Transitional Rituals in Change. Childhood, maturity and marriage to the Bulsa in Northern Ghana). Hohenschäftlarn near Munich: Klaus Renner (see pp. 65-116)

Kröger, Franz, 2009: The child must have a name. Names in Ghana and with us. In: L. Raesfeld, U. Bertels (ed.): Gods, gifts and sociability. Insights into rituals and ceremonies worldwide. Münster, New York, Munich, Berlin: Waxmann.

The subject of a sentence name was often supplemented by a Bulsa informer.



Abaadaanimi: They disturb me.
Abaadek: they themselves; Child looked like ancestor
Abaajiak: They are tired.
Abaakaasi: They spoil.
Abaakarim: They read (people try to study other characters)
Abaakisi. They hate (me).
Abaalaba: They laugh at them.
Abaalakaboa? What are they laughing at?
Abaalie (w): daughter of all of them (woman came pregnant to new husband)
Abaaluk: They separate themselves.
Abaanariba: They wash them (themselves?)
Abaavariba: They collect them (before birth was broken in the house)
Ababiba: They stay with you.
Ababie: They are bad (to me).
Abachoba: They urge them [to quarrel]
Abade: they eat; Let them eat
Abadeksanoa: their own mouths (whatever they say, it is their personal opinion)
Abaglie: daughter of a horn, which is dedicated to a horn-shrine (bage)
Abalami: (They) laugh at me.
Abalika: next year is not there (the child will not experience the next year)
Abalume: They go here or there.
Abanawie: words (as) or quarrel about a boundary (bana)
Abang: lizard; Baby was small as a lizard
Abangdisapo: when forgotten?
Abangmaami: They blame me.
Abasilie: (girl) named after the Basiik-river near Doninga
Abatanurkase: How do they (care for, handle) a person? Mother does not care about her daughter.
Abavelum: They tell lies.
Abawomba: You listen to them (Intentionally, more accurate information is avoided).
Abayiak: they drive away
Abayoming: sadness
Abayuen: they talk (say)
Abazuakame: They are really many! He is satisfied with the number of his children
Abejam: lost and came (father returned undisturbed from the world war)Abelmi: (You) wants the (get lost) with me.Abenibadek: stay with yourself
Abetibala: (If) he gets lost (her) they will laugh (allusion to enemies of the name).
Abiako: give birth to 100 children (name given to the wars against Babatu)
Abiakum: bear the death (so far only deathbirths)
Abiatekum: (They) gave birth to death (all children died).
Abbyjo: to rollin inside (a sign of sorrow or joy)
Abisama: mother of children
Abokakiritinleboa: What is the purpose (sense, sense) of life?
Abolimjumi: Fire has burnt me (in war, the enemy put out fire to get them out of the hiding places)
Abolisi: to prune, to defoliate
Abora: living – He survived after several miscarriages
Aborisa: sowing; Born in the sowing-season
Abuki: book; (E.g. Born for school; Or currently Of birth there was a problem with the state administration
Abuntalia (w): daughter of a stone; Is meant the earth sanctuary Pung Muning (segi of the child)
Aburinya: Christmas (Twi); The child was born at Christmas.
Abusumbuonglie (w): busumboong-tree [Pileostigma thonningii?]; Mother gave birth to this tree
Abuteumboka: Greed is there (exists).
Achaandak: to turn and show
Achagsiyigri: rattle and catch: We are like chickens that are lured by rattles to catch them

Achalikoansa: fear disgrace
Achalikoba: fear fathers (or) run to kill them
Achampok: woman of the sheatree
Achamsi: to try or test
Achana: stranger; Name of a baby before it gets an official name (cf. Asampana)
Acharimi: share with me
Achariwan: with whom shall I share? There are so many people that he can not spread.
Achenya: cut and see; Talking does not help; Do (cut) something and see (nya) as it has become.
Achieknaam: to seize kingship (chieftaincy; wealth)
Achimbe: Where to grow? Where will his children grow up after his death?
Achimboa: become what? What will become of me?
Achingmailie (w): daughter of the rain (born on rainy day)
Achinwan: to become who? You can not go beyond yourself.
Achipagrik: strong soul; Daughter was born 1 year after her older sister; She was expected to die, she must have a strong soul
Achiviepo: in shame
Achuemi: annoy me; Can be aggravated by e.g. Something shows and then does not exist
Achumka: There is no tomorrow. There is no future (for the child).
Achumleyok: Tomorrow will be cool. The future can only be better.
Achumniyaai: You (pl.) Will need me tomorrow.
Adaabanyono: [he is] not their owner (dispute about property or paternity)
Adaabilinsa: Mother was pregnant by Bilinsa people (daa = is not); Child certainly has no Bilinsa father.
Adaakisuk: It is not a taboo (not forbidden).
Adaaminyini: not I alone; Others have their problems
Adaanlie (w): Daughter of the Hirsebier
Adaanur: 1. Interpretation: A. daa only: A’s child is not a human being
Adaanur: 2. Interpretation: A daa just le nye ba: None (except God) made him (lit. she)Adaanur: 3rd interpretation: A dan kan daa only … If it is not a man …Adaasi: push
Adaayauk: (he is) not an elephant (too many of them have too much to do)
Adajavuuk: not a living being – He will not live a long time.
Adalong: born in the Dalong (ancestral home)
Adangbong: to spread (e.g., leaves or grains) on the flat roof (for drying)
Adeakase: eats for nothing
Adeboalie (w): what food?
Adekabula: eat that one; Bula can refer only to nouns of the bu class, eg: saab (T.Z.), tiim (medicine)
Adekatoa: eating is difficult
Adigi: to be silent; Not respond to attacks and accusations
Adiilie (w): Daughter of Doubt
Adiivum: meet life by surprise
Adilieboa (w): What will I get from a daughter? Gifts of the suitor do not weigh son.
Adoalikum: friend of death: Many children had died before, he is now friends with death.
Adogpo: in the room, woman gave birth to space, not outside
Adungkalie (w): Daughter of the beast
Adunkame: to press, suppress; To keep patient, silent
Adunkpak: old hatred
Aduwelingbisa: children of the mighty one (stool name of the former chief Ayieta)
Afaalatie: not minding us; Should look after things;
Afelbiik: white man’s child; Parents know that they have to deliver the child to the Whites (South Ghana)
Afelik (Afelie): white man; Born when white people came to Bulsa; Or: looks or behaves like a white man
Afoblikame: complain, to be dissatisfied
Afoko: slap and kill
Afokobisakantigisi: Afokos children are not united (they always argue with each other)
Aforisidu: to go away from there
Afulang: Fulaani; (E.g. Encounter with Fulani shepherds of birth
Agaam: better; All poor people are better off than him
Agaasa: wicked
Agalic: leftee
Agambiak: Gambaga (town)
Agandiok: strong person, baby was very strong
Agatuesi: go and collect
Agayiak: go and drive away
Agazeri: they go to refuse
Agbaruk: lame; Child learned to run badly
Agbelimi: tantalize (eg, given remake)
Agilimbaninapo: roamabout in their eyes. (Gilim also: to surround, to be enclosed)
Agilinko: surround and kill; When sb. Is encircled, you can easily kill him
Aginganagokbaliisi: The drums (gingana) play to dance (gok <gogi), but they do not want to (dance).
Agoabe: Where (do you) go?
Agoabe: Where do I sleep?
Agoalie (w): Daughter of the bush
Agoalisui: (They) sleep with anger.
Agominapok: gomina <engl. Governor; Girl (pok = woman) was born in the governor’s visitAgoom: sleep; When a child was born, everything was asleep
Agooranaab: chief of kola-nuts; Haussa came at his birth; Boy has Haussa tribal scarsAguliwie: to vomit out problems (or words)
Aguulie (w): daughter of ruins; Homestead was destroyed in war; When the girl was born, he was all over again.
Aguuta: ruins; Our compound will become ruins
Ajaabkinla: something useless
Ajadoklie: daughter of the jadok-spirit (male name * Ajadok not common)
Ajambobapo: Come and stay with them: After the death of the mother, the boy is to grow up with grandparents.
Ajamko: come and kill
Ajamkolim: come and collect; They are to pick up things after the resolution of the household.
Ajamzaan: came and stayed: after many miscarriages survived this child; Name in such cases
Ajapisim: a worthless (picked) thing: His father was the youngest of the siblings and probably will not inherit anything
Ajiak: tired; He is all sorry
Ajiirim: mercy, kindness
Ajikum: (You) carry death on your head; He’s always close to you.
Ajindem: today’s people; The young generation
Ajogileeta: lit. To fail insults (insults have no effect)
Ajokpilung: enter the kingdom of the dead
Ajowiepo: to enter into trouble
Ajoyeagapo: they entered too much: They are too strong in this matter.
Ajozaanbe: Where (can I) enter and stand? (There is no place for me)
Ajue: climb: Whatever you do, the good name (of the child) will rise.
Ajuebek: to climb and ask
Ajuewen: climb to God: Can you climb up to God in heaven?
Ajuiche: climb and cut: I’m so big that you have to climb up to kill me.
Ajuik, Ajuidiok, Ajuibil, Ajuite (male), Ajuiklie or Ajuipok (female): named after the mongoose-shrine (juik);
Ajuikperik: wonderful mongoose: after the child had received a wrong name before
Ajuimoaning: red juik, named after juik-shrine, child has light skin color Ajuibil, Ajuidiok,
Ajuiside: begging for eating; Wants to show that he is very poor
Ajuisigoom: begging for sleep
Ajuisobluk: dark juik; Named after juik-shrine, child has dark skin color
Ajuisiwen: begging God
Ajuviok: Wind blowing
Akaabteba: sacrifice for them
Akaada: do not buy / sell children; You can not buy children.
Akaasinaab: offend a chief
Akabaasim: no health / welfare
Akabanoe: (I) have not got their mouths. (He) has no control over the talk of the neighbors.
Akabawai: have none of them
Akabawiepo: I am not included in your (troubles’) troubles: father was hated by neighbors.
Akaboka: no life; He has no meaning for life, life is meaningless.
Akaboka: has no living
Akachaaliba: (I do) not fear them.Akachaliba: does not fear them
Akachum: (He) has not tomorrow / future.
Akagura: no one to bury; Witches have killed most of his children; He has no more to be buried
Akajiirim: no sympathy, grace, compassionAkakpiengkum: not older than death: death always has the greatest power.
Akalbe: Where will (I) sit? He must constantly go around to settle dispute in family, or: he has many visitors
Akaliwom: sit down and listen: He wants to wait for her reactions.
Akamaanyabisa: does not help to get children
Akaminyeka: not like my doing
Akanbalieta: will not forget their abuse
Akanbang: not forget; He will never forget what has been done to him
Akanbangbiam: not forget to give birth
Akanbangleeta: (I do) not forget insults.
Akanbegchaab: do not ask each other
Akanbeglie (w): “not ask-daughter”; Whatever he is done to him, he will not ask questions
Akanbek: not ask: If you ask questions, a conflict can be exacerbated.
Akanbeliba: I do not get lost with them
Akanbiaba: (can) not give birth to them
Akanbiisatemi: not talk for me: Others can not speak for the newborn girl.
Akanbiisilewen: can not speak with God
Akanboaniba: (I do) not tear them into pieces
Akanbobayik: can not tie and catch; Can not (hold) something
Akanbolukum: is not at death
Akanbong, Akanbongnaab: Ashanti (chief);
Akanboro: not present, not alive
Akanbul (i): no source of water (well): His family does not produce children anymore.
Akanchaalata: not mind laughter: Laughter of the others does not bother him.
Akanchalabe: does not run and get lost
Akancheesiba: (I) do not despise them
Akanchepung: (we) do not cut a rock (a strong can not be defeated)
Akanchiimanyoro: do not count and include: I am not expected to be human beings
Akandabisa: do not buy children
Akandakum: not buy death: Death comes all alone without being called or bought.
Akandalinkum: does not take long to die (death): Until death it is only a short time.
Akandari: not buy / sell: Problems are not bought, they come by themselves.
Akandawen: God can not be bought.
Akandayue: not buy name: A good name (reputation) you can not buy.
Akande: not eat: He will never give his son to another family.
Akandeba: can not take (eat) them: He can not marry a woman from a certain clan.
Akandemaana: They do not eat sorrow: Because he can not eat caring, he has to tell others (maana = talking sorrowfully)
Akandewen: you cannto buy luck / heaven / God
Akanfebanyueta: can not force their intestines; You can not force them (to do something)
Akanfelik: not white; Child had light skin (albino)
Akanfewon: not force God
Akangaaba: will not separate separate them (for example in dispute)Akangaamkum: nobody can surpass death (or: can escape from death)
Akangir (i): do not argue: I am satisfied with what you give me.
Akangiri: I do not imitate (other people).
Akangmanjamloansi: Do not come and throw (it) down again.
Akangriba: do not rely on them, do not argue with them (gr: rely on another person to do sth.)
Akangumbapo: wants not mix with themAkangutiba: they do not exhume him (take him out of the grave)
Akaniaba: I do not relieve them (niagi: bless, relieve)
Akanjagnaab: Chief
Akanje: I would not wrestle. I would not refuse (e.g. food).
Akanjeleba: He can not fight them (je = to wrestle).
Akanjelikum: (I) do not wrestle with death
Akanjoba: does not enter them. He can not stay or live with them.
Akanjoglieta: (I) do not miss insults. He is always offended.
Akanjogyue: he is respected everywhere and has a good reputation.
Akanjolenur: does not have with a person: he hates people who live with him
Akanjoyue: I do not miss a (good) name.
Akanjuisiba: is not begging them: Even if he dies of hunger, he will not beg of them.
Akankalibe: “not – sit – lost”: As long as we sit with the gods, we can not be lost
Akankoalingba: (I) do not collect (here: possess)
Akankomi: can not kill me
Akankpabinaam: does not hasten to [acquire] chieftaincy (wealth)
Akankpienwen: not older than God
Akankuriwai: I will not pound anyone
Akanlaba: do not laugh at them
Akanlakum: They do not laugh at death.
Akanligmi: do not stop me (off)
Akanlugba: does not separate them.
Akanlugsiwen: not claim (take) lucky back
Akanluk: not discriminate
Akanmaami: do not help me
Akanmingkum: not known death: He does not know when death will come.
Akanminiba: I do not refuse them. (Or) I do not have anything from them.
Akanmoatiba: (do / does) not approach them
Akanmob: you can not open [the heart]
Akanmugsimi: not force me, not put on me
Akannagyedri: not bring the downfall of a house
Akannariba: (I) do not wash them
Akanneesiba: does not resemble them: You can never be like the rich.
Akanngmaayienti: (They do) not rush again.
Akanngmanbapo: I do not go back to them.
Akanniaba: not make them better, not reconcile them
Akannueba: (I) do not finish them.
Akannurubawie: not the problems of a man
Akanyaanaab: (does / do) not like chief
Akannyeanyin: can not do and leave
Akannyegaasa: not make wickedAkannyemidu: not do me that: You should not do that to me.
Akannyeteba: not do it for them
Akannyiniviek: (I do not know what to do).
Akanpaabadai: does not reach a day (child will die early)
Akanpaabadai: will not reach them on any day
Akanpaami: not reach me
Akanpaanaab: does not reach a chief: competitor does not deserve chief chess.
Akanpaariba: not reach themAkanpagisi: not deny
Akanpaanaab: does not reach (= deserve) a (title of a) chief (member of chief’s family)
Akanpateng: not take land
Akanpatulsi: (I) do not reach a human being (deep buli).
Akanpekba: will not keep them from doing what they want (pek; pigi = to keep)
Akanpekum: (No one can) avoid death (pe = to swear).
Akanperiba: can not keep (detain) them
Akanpienti: Nobody wants know my secret.
Akanpisiba: not message them
Akanpitibiam: not reveal the secret of death (pinti = to reveal)
Akanpolidi: not think like that
Akanpotikum: do not summon death
Akanpuulim: do not boast
Akansagchaaba: do not teach each other
Akansagmiyam: does not show me sense
Akansagnaab: nobody teaches a chief
Akansalimba: do not beg them
Akansalinkum: do not beg (invite) death
Akansang: does not pursue
Akansiaba: does not agree with them
Akansibaleeta: not agree with their insults
Akansiing: frog (child was small as a frog)
Akansuak: (Ayieta’s children) never fade.
Akansuba: (do / does) not hide them
Akansudum: put badness into it
Akansuenisa: not ready to give alms
Akansuetitok: does not fill throat
Akansugala: not put in left hand; A gift should not be imposed (?)
Akantagriwen: do not change God
Akantagriwena: can not change luck / God: You can not escape destiny.
Akantewonjiam: You do not want to thank God.
Akantigsi: do not gather
Akantogidaam: Do not talk about the past.
Akantomsi: (I do) not imitate
Akantugiba: (I) do not end (with?) Them. (Tugi also: to aim at, to stretch out …)
Akantulimba: I do not turn them upside down
Akantuyue: can not destroy a (good) name
Akanuetiim: do not finish (here: waste) medicine
Akanvaribiam: They do not seize a birth. A person can not be taken away from someone.
Akanvariyer: I do not have a house.Akanviilim: (It) is not too much.
Akanwaang: (I do) not desperse or spread
Akanwaringaang: not stay at the back (behind)
Akanwarisagi: not stay in the bush
Akanwariwen: not force God (vari = to collect with force)
Akanwendi: Do not talk like this: You should not say something like that.
Akanyaabachoa: do like each other
Akanyaabiyong: (I) do not want any more talk (His wife was accused as a witch)
Akanyaajoka: not want to enter (into troubles, discussions …)Akanyaaminyaka: does not want my sight
Akanyaanalim: not want beauty / goodness
Akanyaayega: does not love many
Akanyakpilima: not like / love the ancestors
Akanyanaab: does not like / want a chief
Akanyawai: not like anybody: (ironically: These people claim from him)
Akanyawie: does not like words: He is the talk or the discussions about something sorry.
Akanyimayoro: does not count for me: He is considered nothing (he does not like a certain wonderful person).
Akanyisikum: not beg death: Death comes of itself.
Akanyitiyie: (I do) not quit houses
Akanyono: I have no parents.
Akanzabi: be contented
Akanzabwai: despise no one
Akanzeri: not refuse: I do not give back what God gives me.
Akanzeribiom: not refuse evil (also the evil one must accept)
Akanzeriwen: will not refuse God: He assumes whatever God gives him.
Akanzulichaab: (They do) not respect each other.
Akanzunaab: (does / do) not steal chief
Akapong: porridge (kapong); Or: no (ka) albino (pong)
Akasetechaab: has not build a house for others
Akasiatechaab: does not agree with others
Akasilik: lizard: Child is small as a lizard.
Akasining: destroy before: Someone has spoiled a matter before.
Akasoma: I have no relatives or friends.
Akasuleba: has no feeling for them; Does not mind them
Akatiak: calabash bowl
Akatuaknure: man of “vinegar” = brave person
Akawuruk: small clay pot or dove; Refers to the body shape
Akayaabisa: does not love children (ironic)
Akayalaata: does not like laughter
Akayam: no sense / reason; Eg: younger generation has no reason
Akayeri: has no house
Akayue: no name; He has lost all his face. Whatever he does, there is no gain
Akazawen: go and stand
Akazuik: has no hair; 2ö
Akeri: squirrel
Akingkauk: millet leafAkinla: nothing, in vain
Akisiba: hate them
Akisibadek: (They) hate themselves.
Akisichaab: hate each other
Akisikame: really hating; Sb. Hates me
Akisimideka: they hate my eating
Akisipak: old hatred
Akisuk: taboo
Ako: kill
Akoalimal: daughter of bottles
Akoalingsang: collect (your possessions) and followAkoanoa: deformed person, fool
Akoansa: behaviour of a fool or deformed person;
Akoansa: foolishness
Akoasisi: death does not cease killing: child was born when someone died.
Akobadek: kill themselves
Akobayer: kill their house
Akobisa: relatives
Akochaab: kill each other
Akokbil: small ghost
Akolinaab: chief of Koligu (near Navrongo)
Akolintebai: pack and give sb .: If one has no children, the inheritance is forgiven to somebody;
Akom(i)lie (w): daughter of hunger (born in a famine); Or: daughter of Kom (village)
Akomtoa: crying is difficult
Akonaab: kill a chief
Akopieleba: kill people who speak truth: Man kills upright people.
Akotinnvuusi: Kill and I will rest. (After the murder I’ll have my peace)
Akovuri: kill and drag along: Witches kill people killed home; Or: hunting animal
Akpabiung: excrement of fowl; Everybody can step on it; Is of no use for anybody
Akpagiboro: There is a leader / elder.
Akpagme: drink from the same calabash with me (sign of friendship)
Akpalinboka: forbid (by fighting) people to stay; Or: existance of fighting
Akpalinkosa: fighting is dry: Fighting has no meaning.
Akpangta: seniority, leadership
Akpaziimako: heartbeat kills: If one is afraid, one can easily find death.
Akperibadek: They are in a dilemma themselves. You are a problem yourself.
Akpibengeba: Die, remain and leave her.
Akpilesui: the with temper / annoyance: He will still die from anger.
Akpilimaka: There are no ancestors: If there were ancestors, something like this could not happen.
Akpinueri: the and stop: dying has come to an end, because the family is extinguished.
Akpiok: kpiok: Reason of a particular disease sent by ancestors
Akudomlie (w): It hurts.
Akulemasa: It is sweet.
Akumade: death eats: Death gets his food.
Akumanyami: Death is looking at me.
Akumanyemi: Death is doing me: death “makes me ready”. Many of the family died.
Akumasi, Akumasilie: born in the south of Ghana (not only in the town of Kumasi)
Akumayesi: Death gleans everthing (yes: to collect the remains of the harvest).Akumbagmi: Death has overcome me.
Akumbangmi: Death has forgotten me.
Akumbiok: bad death
Akumjaab: essence or thing of death
Akumjogbe: Where does death fail? (Death is everywhere)
Akumkadoa: Death has no friend.
Akumkayeri: Death has no house. He lives in the house of everyone.
Akumkperik: wonderful death; Death can not be understood.
Akumnuedok: A room (or a lineage). He has brought all the members of the lineage segment.
Akumnyenyigsa: kills and frightens (nyigsi: to frighten, to threaten); He never has enough
Akumpisimi: Death has found me (or: picked me up).
Akumpesi: weep and pickAkumtiila: ladder of death
Akumyeri: death house
Akumyong: a different death
Akunkoltalia: daughter of snails
Akunkolukbajiik: spec. Fish with large head; Nickname for a baby with big head
Akuribe: Where do I want to go? Pound (in a mortar)?
Akuribisa: children of pounding
Sounding (lie), (w): shed; Girl was perhaps born there.
Akutoa: It is hard / difficult
Akutugbang: steel skin; “Thick coat”: he gives nothing to talk about
Akuyalima: It is far away.
Alaabasi: stop laughing: The child always laughed
Alaata: laughter: Whatever you do against me, I can only laugh
Aladek: laugh at yourself
Alakanurba: (He) laughs at people.
Alakowen: laughs at God
Alampo: taxes
Alangyam: change reason
Alanlie: daughter of change (lagim = change)
Alapopo: “to laugh in stomach”; To hide open laughter
Alawan: Whom do you laugh at? In times of misfortune you can not blame another person.
Alawen: laugh at God
Alayeka: laugh very much
Aleetanyeboa: What do insults do? (You do not hurt)
Alegoa: abuse and sleep
Aliengsa: complicated (things)
Aliinbe / Alirimbe: Where hide?
Alimsinya: Wait and see.
Alimsiwen: Waiting for God
Alimulisa: to fill up (ligi) holes (fissures): Mother had previously been born only girls.
Alinchaab: to go ahead of others (people are competing)
Alirimbadek: (they) hide themselves
Alogtaba: a tanggbain (earth-shrine) in Sandema Choabisa
Alongilie: daughter of a bell
Alugchaab: discriminate others
Amaakum: help deathAmaatu: help digging (a name with which some Bulsa call the slave hunter Babatu, grave digger ??)
Amakabe: Where (will I) help?
Amangdu: paste it
Amankain: cocoyam: birth at the time as first Cocoyam came to northern Ghana
Amankarik: late millet / sorghum; A kind that is grown especially in Kanjarga
Amankatoa: becoming friends is hard
Amanweni: not speak
Amarin: to be pleased
Amaring: appreciate, like, admire
Amawarikaro: Mother’s problem does not exist.
Amawen: help God, or: mother’s wen
Amawiak: help Wiaga (village)Ameenalie (w): daughter of mat-sticks; Perhaps born in the bush, when Mother Mattenhalme (meena) brought
Amichakama: I am really shocked (with their behavior)
Amiedi: white ants; After death you will be eaten by termites
Amiinying: strong body; Praise-name (busein)
Amiisa: to be bitter: Life is bitter.
Amiisunglie: daughter of sourness
Amingba: know them
Amingyam: know sense, learn reason
Amisiakadi: I (have) accepted that: He wants to accept everything that fate brings.
Amize: (I do) not know.
Amoak: Mossi (singular): name after miscarriages; Or: named after a Mossi Shrine
Amoanung: red
Amoak: Mossi-man; May refer to a shrine from a Mossi or to a Mossi visitor at the time of birth; Namegiving quite early
Amoata: to be close
Amobvar: to branch and seize (rob)
Amolung: an earth sanctuary of Sandema-Kalijiisa
Ampaasi: do not deceive
Ampabajaab: (do / did) not take their thing
Amugribadek: (you) deceive yourself.
Amumbadek: close (eyes) themselves
Amumnina: to close eyes
Amuntetaam: to close one’s eyes and let pass: taam: on the footpath pass another
Amuuri: to lessen (in number)
Ana (g) kuusa: beat chest
Anaab: chief: father was in the entourage of the chief.
Anaachaaba: beat each other
Anaamtoa: Chieftaincy is bitter / difficult.
Anaamwie: matters of chieftaincy
Anaankum: death of chieftaincy
Anaavuk: cattle passage / track
Anaawiik: call from the chief: When the chief calls, one must come.
Anabiok (lie): shrine in Kasena country; Of Bulsa
Anabisa: chief’s children: The younger generation wants to live like princes in luxury.Anabisakayam: They are often spoiled.
Anachansa: strange / new chief
Anag (ka) zuk: beat or knockhead
Anagbe: Where (will I / you) beat?
Anakayam: A chief has no sense. Sandemnaab sent him back when he said his name
Anako: beat him to death: hit and kill
Anam, Anan: to suffer
Anambasi: to suffer for nothing: My sufferings are unsuccessful.
Anambe: to suffer and get lost
Anambiaklie: suffer and give birth – daughter
Anamboro: suffer and live
Anamsibadek: worrying themselves: Your attacks are unsuccessful and only worry themselves.
Anamsindek: trouble myself
Ananbiak: bad luck (lit. bad leg)Anang: leg: At birth he had small legs.
Anangkpieng: cattle yard: Perhaps he was born there.
Ananko: suffer and die
Anapagiyie: houses of disagreement
Anbagagu: can not bury
Anbagba: not force them; Not manage them
Anbasiwachoa: (has) not left his friend
Anbawie: other people’s problems
Anbiaba: (He) has not born her.
Anbiai: not given birth: I myself have born / begotten my own children, not others.
Andetemi: not for me: God has not given me riches.
Andiemboro: not yet available
Angaa / Angaa (m) ba: not surpass (them): Nobody can beat him as a farmer.
Angaangchaab: not better than others
Angakumpo: I do not know the nature of death.
Angandoksa: shrine (e.g., of chameleons, or divination shrine)
Anganing: I do not go in front: everyone else wants to emigrate to the south.
Angenvari: twist the day: You can not change time, you have to wait for everything.
Angiak: ancestor
Angianabil: small ancestral chief
Anmawen: (I) do not help God.
Angmachaliba: not fear them any longer
Angmachiim: not grow again
Angmakisi: forbid or hate again: He forbids nothing.
Angmalewen: blame / envy God: God bears responsibility for everything.
Angmami: blame me
Angmanchinaab: to be chief again
Angmanoa: blamemouth: What comes out of the mouth is not always good (does not always come from the heart).
Angmanpaaboa: What will he reach again? He will not achieve his goal.
Angmanweenboa: What shall I say again?
Angmanya: take over and see
Angmanyak: certain grass species: abdominal pain from babies are treated with it.
Angmanyesi: What shall I do again?Angmapoli: not think again: people do not want to be reasonable.
Angmarimalie: daughter of mother of rain (= praying mantis)
Angmawumi: They shall never call me again.
Angmeenko: twist and kill: not a natural death but die by ancestor snare
Angmeentemi: Do not force me!
Angmelimbisa: “twist children” (nickname): wants children to be afraid of him; Twists their hands
Angmelimko: twist and kill: When witch buried, twist the grave head, so she / he does not drag others into the grave.
Angoabayie: not sleep at their house
Angobnyiina: chewing / grinding teeth; Annoyance
Anguuniba: grumble (at) them
Aniankaro: There is no blessing: It can not be made better. There is no more help among each other.
Aniateba: bless and give to them
Anichambil: small (few) strangers
Anidoa: man: Someone took pito from a woman without paying; she visited him as a ghost

Anigiri: Muscle Strength: Woman was pregnant in another house in the absence of the husband; He received the child
Anigiri: strength (showing the stiff arm)
Aniigalie (w): cows’ daughter: Father had many cows.
Aninanglie (w): ninang = sp. Tree
Aninigalie (w): sorrowful daughter: At the time of birth, father was worried.
Aninkperisa: wonderful eyes
Anisapo: in the hand; Quote from a beggar member
Anisomnyaansa: love of old people; Or: helpless old people
Aniwobika: weakness (niwoba = weak)
Anjogwaiyer: anybody’s housefrost: there is trouble in every house
Ankasibawari: has not spoiled their affair
Ankpasadema: people of the outskirts of a town (nakpasa: outskirts)
Anmoatibanyaka: not close enough to see her
Annamunya: not suffer to see: I have not suffered to get my wife’s child from another man.
Anoamoai: red mouth (abuse)
Anoangaye: two mouths: two different opinions
Anong: lover; Name of a woman in the husband’s house
Anpan: = Ajampan, baby
Antuenpo: in ashes: child was born near ashes.
Antuntuelie (w): tuntue: grasshoppers; Born between 1930 and 1935, when grasshoppers used to make the land
Anuechaaba: they are finishing each other
Anuekatoa: finishing is hard: My generation / family will not die out easily.
Anuing: bird
Anurbiikgaamtiim: A human being is better than medicine.
Anvabangaang: not followed their back: He has not moved behind the witches.
Anvanyindu: he does not go out with witches.
Anwomba: (does / do) no hear (or respect) them
Anyabajamka: (I have) seen them coming.Anyway: Where (will I) see myself? When will it be better for me?
Anyadobrimbe: Where will I get (see)
Anyagoombe: Where (do I) find sleep / peace?
Anyakobe: Where do I find a father? (I am an orphan)
Anyamasa: sweet water; Drinking water
Anyambe: Where are your relatives / parents?
Anyamila: see me and laugh
Anyangame: They have seen me.
Anyangameena: see them all, to face all kinds of problems
Anyapagrimbe: Where (will he) get strength?
Anyaribe: Where will you get it? You can not have the things of a rich / strong man.
Anyasalinbe: Where do you want to go?
Anyasiokbe: Where can I find a brother?
Anyavusimbe: Where do I find rest?
Anyawombe: Where do you see God?
Anyayegbe: Where will you get enough? You have to be satisfied with the given.
Anyebokatoa: Making one’s life is hard.
Anyediki: make peaceAnyeeme: Where can I roam?
Anyegamba: do (work) and surpass them: To get to the top, you have to work hard.
Anyekakinla: doing (is) in vain
Anyemela: makes me laugh
Anyetebanya: do it, so they see it
Anyewari: (I will) do something.
Anyinkatoa: Coming out (of troubles) is difficult.
Anyinsagba: Come out and teach them.
Anyunggame: smelling: It is hanging out my neck (“stinks me”).
Apa (g) rim (m) asa: Strength is sweet.Frau was conceived in another house in the absence of the husband.
Appaba: reach them
Apaakaburuk: reach far and wide
Apaakatoa: To reach something is hard / difficult.
Apagratoa: strong and brave / tough
Apagrimka: strength is missing.
Apagyarics: praising the Kantusi
Apampok (w): wife of the pam-animal
Apana: “baby”, = jampan
Aparik: wall: born at a farmhouse wall
Aparipok (w): maybe born at the farm wall (parik)
Apatawan: take and give to whom?
Apeintiik: arrow-poison shrine; Perhaps born in the day when the shrine was sacrificed, his protector?
Aperagoa: sleep with force: He has to sleep here, though he does not want it.
Apientiwen: reveal God
Apigjiak: to have patience with wrestling
Apigsiak: You must agree with everything.
Apiining: lean and tiny: sick child with fat belly
Apitiim: to bury medicine
Apoabadek: make themselves rotten: Child was spoiled by others with sweets and eggs.Apochaab / Aporichaab: separate each other: There is no more unity among us.
Apokmoaning (w): red woman; Reddish skin color
Apoknaab (w): leader of women, female chief
Apoktuek (w): bitter wife
Apotimi: summon me
Apung: rock; (E.g. After a Felstangbain (e.g., from Kajaga)
Apupulia (w): motor-cycle-daughter
Apuyiilalie (w): Stop thinking.
Asaab: millet-porridge; Fond of eating porridge (?)
Asaajipok (w): wife of sergeant / soldier: 2nd world war was born: A soldier had kidnapped one of his wives
Asaama: porcupine: A porcupine came into the farm when mother was pregnant.
Asage: maybe born in the bush
Asagbiok: bad forest: animal had attacked the pregnant mother in the bush (birth at home)
Asagkpieri: teach in vain
Asaglie: the baby born after several miscarriages was exposed symbolically ritually in the bushy (sagi)
Asagnaab: chief of the bush: child was born in the bush.
Asagtebawom: Teach them that (and) they listen.Asagyam: teach reason
Asakpakchinbil: small calabash of a witch
Asakpanaab: chief witch: The witches should know that he is stronger than all witches.
Asakpawie: Witch’s affairs
Asalinwen: beg God
Asampan (a), Sampana: Frafra loan (sana = stranger, pana = arrived); Name of a baby before it gets an official name; Buli: Achana
Asebawie: Mind your own problems.
Asegrikum: assigned to death in the segrika (allocation of a protective spirit)
Asekabta: to build half: When Ayieta became chief, Anaankum left children’s homestead; Half a farm stood empty
Aseyeribe: Where (can I) build a house?
Asezanbe: Where (do I) build to stay?
Asia (ka) di: agree to that
Asiabanoai: agree with their opinion (mouths)
Asiabisa: agree with children: In the future, we still have to obey our children.
Asiakawen: agree with God
Asiakdila: to agree with that
Asianaab: to meet with the chief, to obey the chief
Asibil: small siik-tree (or child of the Siik-tanggbain?)
Asiekteba: obey them; Agree with them
Asiisapo: in the grove: maybe born there
Asikatoa: to close it (quarrel?) Is difficult; Si = pour out
Asimi: against me
Asiuklie: daughter of the road (or of a journey;
Asiukpienlie (w): born on a big road
Asuebisa: stuff with children; Or: Children Asueris (Asueri is his protege)
Asugbe: where hide? Where can we hide?
Asuikanlo: navel (= anger) does not fall (cool down)Asuikanyok: hear (is) not cool; Anger
Asuikayam: temper has no reason: When one is angry, one knows no reason.
Asuikpaklie: daughter of an old anger
Asuinaab: chief of the main road
Asuitapo: “on the roads”: born on the road
Asuitapok (w): woman of roads: She was born when the runway from Navrongo to Sandema was built.
Asuiyademi: Annoyance / temper is eating me.
Asuiyakomi (short: Asuemi): Annoyance is killing me.
Asuk: hide (sugi)
Asukkisimi: hide and hate me (they hate me secretly, without showing it)
Asukoruk: wears trousers
Asukoruk: empty hatred; Hatred for nothing: Ayieta was envied and hated, but it bounced on him.
Asupaklie (w): daughter of crossroads: Mother got at a crossing labor (birth there?).
Asupaksa: crossroads, unkonwn journey: Nobody knows where he went.
Asupuuritawie: Anger has problems: If you are angry, you (unintentionally?) Do things that bring problems.
Ataamkaab: come over and sacrifice
Ataamkanying: lit. “Because of my passing” (… I am hated)
Ataboade: What have you got to eat?Atadinyin: take it out: child should remove all sorrow.
Atakalibe: Where do I sit?
Atalbe: Where remain?
Atalibabe: Where does he leave them?
Atalika: leaving out
Atamangbe: where (can I) lean? On whom can I rely?
Atamangbe: Where to hide [before witches]?
Atampoi, Atampolie (female): rubbish heap: The child was begotten for the tampoi (burial ground).
Atampoi: after miscarriages: child is put on the tampoi (waste heap).
Atanta: sand: All people, rich and poor. Are like sand.
Atekinla: to give for nothing (in vain)
Atekpilima: give to ancestors
Atemikaboa: What have you given me?
Atenaab: give to the chief: Today you have to give everything the chiefs.
Atengdem: owners of the land; (Or) people of a town
Atengkabiik: Child of the Earth
Atengkperik: wonderful land: Our world is full of secrets.
Ateteg: give to the Earth
Atewen: give to God
Atigilie (w): daughter of the tigi festival
Atiimka: Medicine is not available. Many problems can not be solved by medicine.
Atimai: Let us help!
Atinang: Root medicine
Atinsiak: just agree – you just have to accept it
Atingmansiak: We agree again.
Atiriba: touch them: child always wanted to touch everything.
Atisebla: we know (“had I known”, expression of regret)
Atitewan: Whom do we give? He has so many children that he does not know whom to give.Atoakabe: Where are you going? Somebody left the farm.
Atoaling: Tallensi-man; E.g. Born after the visit of the Tallensi group; Namegiving quite early
Atogsawana: What should I tell to somebody?
Atogwie: They tell things (words).
Atomsiek: just agree (or accept)
Atongdem: shoot people; Or: Tongo people (who sacrifice among the Bulsa)
Atong: Tongo (not dedicated to a Tallensi shrine)
Atudum: to meet hatred
Atugudem: people of war
Atuguribisa: children of was: Child was very troublesome.
Atugurik: was
Atuguriknaab / Atuguriklie: born in times of war
Atuima: work: He is busy with a job.
Atuntualie (w): daughter of grasshopper; Born while grasshoppers bled the Bulsaland
Atusiuk: meet on the way (his enemies, half-way?)
Atwen: to have God, to be fortunate
Avabe: Where should he pass? His enemies are everywhere.
Avarade: to take by force and eat:
Avarijo: go in by force
Avariwie: to get a good name by force
Avayaam: vayaam (grave digger medicine) is segi of the childAvelimbadek: They lie themselves.
Aviak: valley: born there
Aviilim: to outweigh: It goes beyond his powers.
Avilimkpie: to roll up and fail
Avilingiri: to coil neck
Avongchaab: forgive each other
Avonjiak: to favorite (vong) wrestling: If nothing else helps, we have to wrestle.
Avotinglie (w): born on December 7, 2000, the election day
Awaabil: small snake: Even small snakes are dangerous.
Awaalie (w): Before her birth, an ancestral serpent came into the homestead.
Awaasiako: whisper to (and) kill
Awaasiboa: What are you gossiping at?
Awaboalie (w): daughter of many words (wa = word, boari = many)
Awachangsa: strange thing
Awalingkame: really try
Awanalingka: There is no good word.
Awankawen: He is not fortunate.
Awapaala: new thing
Awaribe: Where will I stay?
Awarikaro: no problem: I have nothing to do there.
Awelingsaka: There is no holiness (or righteousness)
Awenanya: God sees (everything).
Awenate: God gives.
Awenbas: God created (them): Name given after a poison attack
Awenbasimi: God has left me.
Awenbiik: Child of God; Name for illegitimate child (pregnant woman married); Name also for own childrenAwenbiisi: God will talk. God speaks.
Awenbilie (w): small daughter of heaven
Awenbiok: bad luck, bad heaven; Or: devil
Awenboro: God exists.
Awencharuk: God’s share
Awendok: church: The children we now bear are transgressed to the Christian Church.
Awengelim: God has surrounded.
Awenkayeg: God is great.
Awenlesiak: God will agree.
Awenmagsi: He spoke the appropriate word.
Awenminimi: God refused to give me.
Awennaab: God is chief.
Awennyemi: God made me.
Awennyiini: God alone
Awennying: because of God
Awensaglie (w): God teaches (daughters)
Awensieka: There is not truth.
Awentaayaami: God holds and loves me.
Awentemi: God gave me.
Awentewen: God has given luck
Awentiirim: gift of God: name of the child; When a pregnant woman was married.
Awentok: God may talk. God is to judge the thing.Awenyuen: God has said: God’s statement is final.
Awianaab: chief of Wiaga: Mother gave birth to Wiaga; She did not want to name Awiag, since he was a son of Atuga.
Awibadek: call themselves: Father was accused of theft. Prosecutors should look for true thieves.
Awientewen: to tell God
Awiinya: Call and see.
Awogbadek: (They) suffer themselves.
Awogbadek: pain themselves
Awomanyoro: to hear and add
Awombadek: to hear from himself: Woman had quarreling with husband, and bore birth in her parents’ house, and would listen to something of her husband.
Awomnya: hear and see: Let’s wait and see.
Awuba: feed them (wuuk = to feed)
Awulimlie (w): sweat (n.)
Awumba: listen to them: He is now patient and wants to listen to them
Awunya: to feed and see: Let’s wait and see if we can get through the child.
Awusima: horses; (E.g. The time between this and the preceding period was very long (as in horses)
Awutapo: in the grass: He was born when his mother went to toilet.
Ay (u) esuk: name hides; Someone is not known by name.
Ayaabadik: They like themselves.
Ayaakaanopo: Love with the mouth
Ayaakum: to like death
Ayaara: emptiness
Ayaata: rubbish; People are like waste; After miscarriage?
Ayabalie (w): daughter of the market; Born at the market or on a market dayAyaligoa: wants to sleep
Ayamboa: what sense?
Ayamgaami: more sense than I (have)
Ayamka: Reason is not there. It is unreasonable.
Ayapagrim: like strength
Ayaribil: small Kantussi
Ayaribisa: children of the Kantussi
Ayariyak: poor Kantussi
Ayieta: to take back and possess
Ayieyam: remove sense
Ayigikpie: fail to catch
Ayiibadek: They themselves behave abnormally.
Ayikaasung: spoiled house
Ayingabe: Where do I get up and go?
Ayitilingba: to get up and take the lead of them
Ayiwang: house destroyed
Ayognying: cold body: Keep calm!
Ayogpo: midnight: Child was born at midnight.
Ayogsimtami: lit. Fear has me; I fear
Ayombil: young slave
Ayombiok: bad slave
Ayombisa: relatives (children) of slaves
Ayomo (m) / Ayompok (w): slave: given after miscarriages
Ayuekanbe: A (good) name does not get lost.Ayuekanbe: A good name can not be lost.
Ayuenko: talk and the
Ayukavaata: to put on leaves: name given in the house of her husband because she was still carrying leaves
Azakopo: is on the way
Azangbabil: small Hausa-man; Child has cross-cords; Before children died.
Azambarima: after miscarriages, the child was ritually sold to Zambarima man
Azantinlo (w): Shake that I fall: When children are in trees, they are often shaken to fall. Here: deep meaning. Or: (You) stood that I fall.
Azarinying: because of placenta: Different men wanted to have the child after birth.
Azebiam: not know birth; Mother married after the birth of Sandema; Later translated into Hausa: Gadama
Azebiamtoa: (They do not know that birth is difficult.
Azebiik: not know how to talk (arguments)
Azechaab: not know each other
Azechum: does not know tomorrow
Azekabena: not know the number of years
Azekadi: did not know it was so
Azekadi: does not know it is like that
Azenaab: not knowchief: After the birth one does not know yet, whether child is perhaps once chiefly; Will later Wiaga-chief
Azeneroa: someone who does not know (know how) to swallow
Azenyeka: not know doing: You do not know how to do it.
Azepagra: not know strong, not know to be strongAzeridai: to refuse a day
Azeriwen: refuse God
Azeriwie: to refuse (resist) problems
Azeteban: do not know boundaries: Borders should not be mentioned.
Azewari: does not know anything
Azirima: type of dangerous wasp (name refers to bad behaviour)
Azong: Sheepdog: born in the sheep barn; Name also given after miscarriages
Azungchongka: It is better.
Azupagra: head is strong (fearless)


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